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Use Of Smartphones for Ensuring Vulnerable Road User Safety through Path Prediction and Early Warning: An In-Depth Review of Capabilities, Limitations and Their Applications in Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems

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School of Computer Science and Informatics, De Montfort University, Leicester LE1 9BH, UK
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Faculty of Computing and Information Technology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Computer Science, Guelma University, Guelma 24000, Algeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20040997
Received: 30 December 2019 / Revised: 21 January 2020 / Accepted: 8 February 2020 / Published: 13 February 2020
The field of cooperative intelligent transport systems and more specifically pedestrians to vehicles could be characterized as quite challenging, since there is a broad research area to be studied, with direct positive results to society. Pedestrians to vehicles is a type of cooperative intelligent transport system, within the group of early warning collision/safety system. In this article, we examine the research and applications carried out so far within the field of pedestrians to vehicles cooperative transport systems by leveraging the information coming from vulnerable road users’ smartphones. Moreover, an extensive literature review has been carried out in the fields of vulnerable road users outdoor localisation via smartphones and vulnerable road users next step/movement prediction, which are closely related to pedestrian to vehicle applications and research. We identify gaps that exist in these fields that could be improved/extended/enhanced or newly developed, while we address future research objectives and methodologies that could support the improvement/development of those identified gaps. View Full-Text
Keywords: cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS); vehicle to pedestrian (V2P); pedestrian to vehicle (P2V); vulnerable road users (VRUs); GPS; smartphones; inertial measurement units sensors cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS); vehicle to pedestrian (V2P); pedestrian to vehicle (P2V); vulnerable road users (VRUs); GPS; smartphones; inertial measurement units sensors
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Vourgidis, I.; Maglaras, L.; Alfakeeh, A.S.; Al-Bayatti, A.H.; Ferrag, M.A. Use Of Smartphones for Ensuring Vulnerable Road User Safety through Path Prediction and Early Warning: An In-Depth Review of Capabilities, Limitations and Their Applications in Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems. Sensors 2020, 20, 997.

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