In this study, a sensor based on the development of a planar antenna immersed in sediments dedicated to water content monitoring in this type of material is proposed and experimentally validated. It is produced by a conventional Printed Circuit Board (PCB) manufacturing process on a double-sided metalized FR4 substrate. The sensitivity of the sensor is ensured by the variation of the real part of the complex dielectric permittivity of sediments with water content at around 1 GHz. As shown, in this frequency range, electrode polarization and Maxwell–Wagner polarization effects become negligible, leading to only a bulk water polarization sensitivity. The sensor operates in the reflection mode by monitoring the variation of the resonant frequency as a function of the sediment density through the S11
reflection measurements. An experimental sensitivity of
was achieved. Despite the simplification of data interpretation at the considered frequency, the influence of ionic species such as NaCl in sediments on the real part of the relative complex dielectric permittivity is highlighted. This demonstrates the importance of considering a second parameter such as the S11
level at low frequency or the electrical conductivity to extract the density from the frequency measurements.
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