During the processing and planting of soybeans, it is greatly significant that a reliable, rapid, and accurate technique is used to detect soybean varieties. Traditional chemical analysis methods of soybean variety sampling (e.g., mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography) are destructive and time-consuming. In this paper, a robust and accurate method for nondestructive soybean classification is developed through hyperspectral imaging and ensemble machine learning algorithms. Image acquisition, preprocessing, and feature selection are used to obtain different types of soybean hyperspectral features. Based on these features, one of ensemble classifiers-random subspace linear discriminant (RSLD) algorithm is used to classify soybean seeds. Compared with the linear discrimination (LD) and linear support vector machine (LSVM) methods, the results show that the RSLD algorithm in this paper is more stable and reliable. In classifying soybeans in 10, 15, 20, and 25 categories, the RSLD method achieves the highest classification accuracy. When 155 features are used to classify 15 types of soybeans, the classification accuracy of the RSLD method reaches 99.2%, while the classification accuracies of the LD and LSVM methods are only 98.6% and 69.7%, respectively. Therefore, the ensemble classification algorithm RSLD can maintain high classification accuracy when different types and different classification features are used.
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