Next Article in Journal
A Multi-Sensor Wearable System for the Quantitative Assessment of Parkinson’s Disease
Previous Article in Journal
Study of Effectiveness of Prior Knowledge for Smart Home Kit Installation
Article

A Non-Invasive Soil Moisture Sensing System Electronic Architecture: A Real Environment Assessment

1
Department of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi”—University of Bologna, Via dell’Università, 50, 47521 Cesena, Italy
2
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Via Sommarive, 9, 38123 Povo, Italy
3
Centre Agriculture Food Environment, University of Trento, Via E. Mach, 1, 38010 S. Michele all’Adige, Italy
4
Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Piazza Goidanich 60, 47521 Cesena, Italy
5
Interdepartmental Center for Industrial Agri-Food Research, University of Bologna, Via Q. Bucci 336, 47521 Cesena, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(21), 6147; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216147
Received: 31 August 2020 / Revised: 26 October 2020 / Accepted: 26 October 2020 / Published: 29 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
This paper will show the electronic architecture of a portable and non-invasive soil moisture system based on an open rectangular waveguide. The spectral information, measured in the range of 1.5–2.7 GHz, is elaborated on by an embedded predictive model, based on a partial least squares (PLS) regression tool, for the estimation of the soil moisture (%) in a real environment. The proposed system is composed of a waveguide, containing Tx and Rx antennas, and an electronic circuit driven by a microcontroller (MCU). It will be shown how the system provides a useful and fast estimation of moisture on a silty clay loam soil characterized by a moisture range of about 9% to 32% and a soil temperature ranging from about 8 °C and 18 °C. Using the PLS approach, the moisture content can be predicted with an R2 value of 0.892, a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.0%, and a residual prediction deviation (RPD) of 4.3. The results prove that it is possible to make accurate and rapid moisture assessments without the use of invasive electrodes, as currently employed by state-of-the-art approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil moisture; silty clay loam; waveguide spectroscopy; “gain” and “phase”; partial least square regression (PLS) soil moisture; silty clay loam; waveguide spectroscopy; “gain” and “phase”; partial least square regression (PLS)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Franceschelli, L.; Berardinelli, A.; Crescentini, M.; Iaccheri, E.; Tartagni, M.; Ragni, L. A Non-Invasive Soil Moisture Sensing System Electronic Architecture: A Real Environment Assessment. Sensors 2020, 20, 6147. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216147

AMA Style

Franceschelli L, Berardinelli A, Crescentini M, Iaccheri E, Tartagni M, Ragni L. A Non-Invasive Soil Moisture Sensing System Electronic Architecture: A Real Environment Assessment. Sensors. 2020; 20(21):6147. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216147

Chicago/Turabian Style

Franceschelli, Leonardo, Annachiara Berardinelli, Marco Crescentini, Eleonora Iaccheri, Marco Tartagni, and Luigi Ragni. 2020. "A Non-Invasive Soil Moisture Sensing System Electronic Architecture: A Real Environment Assessment" Sensors 20, no. 21: 6147. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216147

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop