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Open AccessArticle

Development of Low-Cost Portable Spectrometers for Detection of Wood Defects

1
InnoRenew CoE, Livade 6, 6310 Izola, Slovenia
2
Andrej Marušič Institute, University of Primorska, Titov trg 4, 6000 Koper, Slovenia
3
Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Information Technologies, University of Primorska, Glagoljaška 8, 6000 Koper, Slovenia
4
FFoQSI—Austrian Competence Centre for Feed and Food Quality, Safety & Innovation, FFoQSI GmbH, Technopark 1C, 3430 Tulln, Austria
5
Institute of Wood Technology and Renewable Materials, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Konrad Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln an der Donau, Austria
6
CNR-IBE, Via Madonna del piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(2), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20020545
Received: 26 November 2019 / Revised: 7 January 2020 / Accepted: 15 January 2020 / Published: 19 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infrared Spectroscopy and Sensors)
Portable spectroscopic instruments are an interesting alternative for in-field and on-line measurements. However, the practical implementation of visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR) portable sensors in the forest sector is challenging due to operation in harsh environmental conditions and natural variability of wood itself. The objective of this work was to use spectroscopic methods as an alternative to visual grading of wood quality. Three portable spectrometers covering visible and near infrared range were used for the detection of selected naturally occurring wood defects, such as knots, decay, resin pockets and reaction wood. Measurements were performed on wooden discs collected during the harvesting process, without any conditioning or sample preparation. Two prototype instruments were developed by integrating commercially available micro-electro-mechanical systems with for-purpose selected lenses and light source. The prototype modules of spectrometers were driven by an Arduino controller. Data were transferred to the PC by USB serial port. Performance of all tested instruments was confronted by two discriminant methods. The best performing was the microNIR instrument, even though the performance of custom prototypes was also satisfactory. This work was an essential part of practical implementation of VIS-NIR spectroscopy for automatic grading of logs directly in the forest. Prototype low-cost spectrometers described here formed the basis for development of a prototype hyperspectral imaging solution tested during harvesting of trees within the frame of a practical demonstration in mountain forests. View Full-Text
Keywords: NIR spectroscopy; wood defects; portable instruments; in-filed measurement NIR spectroscopy; wood defects; portable instruments; in-filed measurement
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sandak, J.; Sandak, A.; Zitek, A.; Hintestoisser, B.; Picchi, G. Development of Low-Cost Portable Spectrometers for Detection of Wood Defects. Sensors 2020, 20, 545.

AMA Style

Sandak J, Sandak A, Zitek A, Hintestoisser B, Picchi G. Development of Low-Cost Portable Spectrometers for Detection of Wood Defects. Sensors. 2020; 20(2):545.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sandak, Jakub; Sandak, Anna; Zitek, Andreas; Hintestoisser, Barbara; Picchi, Gianni. 2020. "Development of Low-Cost Portable Spectrometers for Detection of Wood Defects" Sensors 20, no. 2: 545.

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