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Macro-, Micro- and Nano-Roughness of Carbon-Based Interface with the Living Cells: Towards a Versatile Bio-Sensing Platform

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Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Sauletekio Ave. 3, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania
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Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya 11, 220030 Minsk, Belarus
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Institute of Photonics, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistokatu 2, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland
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Department of Biophysics, Belarusian State University, Nezavisimosti Ave. 4, 220030 Minsk, Belarus
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Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, FI-00076 Espoo, P.O. Box 13500, Finland
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Division of Solid State Physics, Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskiy Prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow, Russia
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Department of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory 1–2, 119991 Moscow, Russia
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Institute of Biochemistry, Life Sciences Center, Vilnius University, Sauletekio Ave. 7, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania
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Institute of Physiology of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus, 28 Akademichnaya Str., BY-220072 Minsk, Belarus
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(18), 5028; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185028
Received: 30 July 2020 / Revised: 27 August 2020 / Accepted: 2 September 2020 / Published: 4 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Integration of living cells with nonbiological surfaces (substrates) of sensors, scaffolds, and implants implies severe restrictions on the interface quality and properties, which broadly cover all elements of the interaction between the living and artificial systems (materials, surface modifications, drug-eluting coatings, etc.). Substrate materials must support cellular viability, preserve sterility, and at the same time allow real-time analysis and control of cellular activity. We have compared new substrates based on graphene and pyrolytic carbon (PyC) for the cultivation of living cells. These are PyC films of nanometer thickness deposited on SiO2 and black silicon and graphene nanowall films composed of graphene flakes oriented perpendicular to the Si substrate. The structure, morphology, and interface properties of these substrates are analyzed in terms of their biocompatibility. The PyC demonstrates interface biocompatibility, promising for controlling cell proliferation and directional intercellular contact formation while as-grown graphene walls possess high hydrophobicity and poor biocompatibility. By performing experiments with C6 glioma cells we discovered that PyC is a cell-friendly coating that can be used without poly-l-lysine or other biopolymers for controlling cell adhesion. Thus, the opportunity to easily control the physical/chemical properties and nanotopography makes the PyC films a perfect candidate for the development of biosensors and 3D bioscaffolds. View Full-Text
Keywords: pyrolytic carbon; graphene; graphene nanowalls; black silicon; glioma cells; biocompatibility pyrolytic carbon; graphene; graphene nanowalls; black silicon; glioma cells; biocompatibility
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MDPI and ACS Style

Golubewa, L.; Rehman, H.; Kulahava, T.; Karpicz, R.; Baah, M.; Kaplas, T.; Shah, A.; Malykhin, S.; Obraztsov, A.; Rutkauskas, D.; Jankunec, M.; Matulaitienė, I.; Selskis, A.; Denisov, A.; Svirko, Y.; Kuzhir, P. Macro-, Micro- and Nano-Roughness of Carbon-Based Interface with the Living Cells: Towards a Versatile Bio-Sensing Platform. Sensors 2020, 20, 5028. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185028

AMA Style

Golubewa L, Rehman H, Kulahava T, Karpicz R, Baah M, Kaplas T, Shah A, Malykhin S, Obraztsov A, Rutkauskas D, Jankunec M, Matulaitienė I, Selskis A, Denisov A, Svirko Y, Kuzhir P. Macro-, Micro- and Nano-Roughness of Carbon-Based Interface with the Living Cells: Towards a Versatile Bio-Sensing Platform. Sensors. 2020; 20(18):5028. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185028

Chicago/Turabian Style

Golubewa, Lena, Hamza Rehman, Tatsiana Kulahava, Renata Karpicz, Marian Baah, Tommy Kaplas, Ali Shah, Sergei Malykhin, Alexander Obraztsov, Danielis Rutkauskas, Marija Jankunec, Ieva Matulaitienė, Algirdas Selskis, Andrei Denisov, Yuri Svirko, and Polina Kuzhir. 2020. "Macro-, Micro- and Nano-Roughness of Carbon-Based Interface with the Living Cells: Towards a Versatile Bio-Sensing Platform" Sensors 20, no. 18: 5028. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185028

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