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Article

Analysis of Phenolic Content in Grape Seeds and Skins by Means of a Bio-Electronic Tongue

1
Department of Materials Science, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid, Spain
2
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), ESA, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, 5301 Bragança, Portugal
3
Group UVaSens, Escuela de Ingenierías Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce, 59, 47011 Valladolid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(15), 4176; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154176
Received: 30 June 2020 / Revised: 21 July 2020 / Accepted: 24 July 2020 / Published: 27 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multisensor Systems for Chemical Analysis)
A bio-electronic tongue has been developed to evaluate the phenolic content of grape residues (seeds and skins) in a fast and easy way with industrial use in mind. A voltammetric electronic tongue has been designed based on carbon resin electrodes modified with tyrosinase combined with electron mediators. The presence of the phenoloxydase promotes the selectivity and specificity towards phenols. The results of multivariate analysis allowed discriminating seeds and skins according to their polyphenolic content. Partial least squares (PLS) has been used to establish regression models with parameters related to phenolic content measured by spectroscopic methods i.e., total poliphenol content (TPC) and Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) indexes. It has been shown that electronic tongue can be successfully used to predict parameters of interest with high correlation coefficients (higher than 0.99 in both calibration and prediction) and low residual errors. These values can even be improved using genetic algorithms for multivalent analysis. In this way, a fast and simple tool is available for the evaluation of these values. This advantage may be due to the fact that the electrochemical signals are directly related to the phenolic content. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrochemical sensor; bio-electronic tongue; grape seed; grape skin; phenol electrochemical sensor; bio-electronic tongue; grape seed; grape skin; phenol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Garcia-Cabezon, C.; Gobbi Teixeira, G.; Dias, L.G.; Salvo-Comino, C.; García-Hernandez, C.; Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L.; Martin-Pedrosa, F. Analysis of Phenolic Content in Grape Seeds and Skins by Means of a Bio-Electronic Tongue. Sensors 2020, 20, 4176. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154176

AMA Style

Garcia-Cabezon C, Gobbi Teixeira G, Dias LG, Salvo-Comino C, García-Hernandez C, Rodriguez-Mendez ML, Martin-Pedrosa F. Analysis of Phenolic Content in Grape Seeds and Skins by Means of a Bio-Electronic Tongue. Sensors. 2020; 20(15):4176. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154176

Chicago/Turabian Style

Garcia-Cabezon, Cristina, Guilherme Gobbi Teixeira, Luís G. Dias, Coral Salvo-Comino, Celia García-Hernandez, Maria L. Rodriguez-Mendez, and Fernando Martin-Pedrosa. 2020. "Analysis of Phenolic Content in Grape Seeds and Skins by Means of a Bio-Electronic Tongue" Sensors 20, no. 15: 4176. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154176

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