The real-time monitoring of fluid properties in tubular systems, such as viscosity and flow rate, is essential for industries utilizing liquid mediums. Nowadays, most studies of the fluid characteristics are performed off-line using laboratory facilities that can provide accurate results, yet they do not match the demanded industrial pace. Off-line measurements are ineffective and time-consuming. The available real-time monitoring sensors for fluid properties are generally destructive methods that produce significant and persistent damage to the tubular systems during the installation process. Others use huge and bulky invasive instrument methods that generate considerable pressure reduction and energy loss in tubular systems. For these drawbacks, industries centered their attention on non-invasive and non-destructive testing (NDT) methodologies, which are installed on the outer tubular surface to avoid flow disturbance and desist shutting down systems for installations. Although these sensors showed excellent achievement for monitoring and inspecting pipe health conditions, the performance was not convincing for monitoring the properties of fluids. This review paper presents an overview of the real-time monitoring of fluid properties in tubular systems for industrial applications, particularly for pipe monitoring sensors, viscosity, and flow measurements. Additionally, the different available sensing mechanisms and their advantages, drawbacks, and potentials are discussed.
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