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Open AccessArticle

A Method for Sensor-Based Activity Recognition in Missing Data Scenario

1
Department of Applied Science for Integrated System Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu 804-8550, Japan
2
Department of Media Intelligent, Osaka University, Ibaraki 567-0047, Japan
3
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
4
Department of Human Intelligence Systems, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu 808-0196, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(14), 3811; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20143811
Received: 24 April 2020 / Revised: 9 June 2020 / Accepted: 30 June 2020 / Published: 8 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Activity Recognition)
Sensor-based human activity recognition has various applications in the arena of healthcare, elderly smart-home, sports, etc. There are numerous works in this field—to recognize various human activities from sensor data. However, those works are based on data patterns that are clean data and have almost no missing data, which is a genuine concern for real-life healthcare centers. Therefore, to address this problem, we explored the sensor-based activity recognition when some partial data were lost in a random pattern. In this paper, we propose a novel method to improve activity recognition while having missing data without any data recovery. For the missing data pattern, we considered data to be missing in a random pattern, which is a realistic missing pattern for sensor data collection. Initially, we created different percentages of random missing data only in the test data, while the training was performed on good quality data. In our proposed approach, we explicitly induce different percentages of missing data randomly in the raw sensor data to train the model with missing data. Learning with missing data reinforces the model to regulate missing data during the classification of various activities that have missing data in the test module. This approach demonstrates the plausibility of the machine learning model, as it can learn and predict from an identical domain. We exploited several time-series statistical features to extricate better features in order to comprehend various human activities. We explored both support vector machine and random forest as machine learning models for activity classification. We developed a synthetic dataset to empirically evaluate the performance and show that the method can effectively improve the recognition accuracy from 80.8% to 97.5%. Afterward, we tested our approach with activities from two challenging benchmark datasets: the human activity sensing consortium (HASC) dataset and single chest-mounted accelerometer dataset. We examined the method for different missing percentages, varied window sizes, and diverse window sliding widths. Our explorations demonstrated improved recognition performances even in the presence of missing data. The achieved results provide persuasive findings on sensor-based activity recognition in the presence of missing data. View Full-Text
Keywords: human activity recognition (HAR); sensor network; missing values; random forest; SVM human activity recognition (HAR); sensor network; missing values; random forest; SVM
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Hossain, T.; Ahad, M.A.R.; Inoue, S. A Method for Sensor-Based Activity Recognition in Missing Data Scenario. Sensors 2020, 20, 3811.

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