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Open AccessArticle

A Two-Layer Controller for Lateral Path Tracking Control of Autonomous Vehicles

by Zhiwei He 1,2, Linzhen Nie 1,2, Zhishuai Yin 1,2,* and Song Huang 1
1
School of Automotive Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
2
Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Automotive Components, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(13), 3689; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20133689
Received: 26 May 2020 / Revised: 27 June 2020 / Accepted: 29 June 2020 / Published: 1 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Intelligent Sensors)
This paper presents a two-layer controller for accurate and robust lateral path tracking control of highly automated vehicles. The upper-layer controller, which produces the front wheel steering angle, is implemented with a Linear Time-Varying MPC (LTV-MPC) whose prediction and control horizon are both optimized offline with particle swarm optimization (PSO) under varying working conditions. A constraint on the slip angle is imposed to prevent lateral forces from saturation to guarantee vehicle stability. The lower layer is a radial basis function neural network proportion-integral-derivative (RBFNN-PID) controller that generates electric current control signals executable by the steering motor to rapidly track the target steering angle. The nonlinear characteristics of the steering system are modeled and are identified on-line with the RBFNN so that the PID controller’s control parameters can be adjusted adaptively. The results of CarSim-Matlab/Simulink joint simulations show that the proposed hierarchical controller achieves a good level of path tracking accuracy while maintaining vehicle stability throughout the path tracking process, and is robust to dynamic changes in vehicle velocities and road adhesion coefficients. View Full-Text
Keywords: autonomous vehicle; lateral path tracking control; model predictive control autonomous vehicle; lateral path tracking control; model predictive control
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He, Z.; Nie, L.; Yin, Z.; Huang, S. A Two-Layer Controller for Lateral Path Tracking Control of Autonomous Vehicles. Sensors 2020, 20, 3689.

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