Iron deficiency (ID) is the most prevalent and severe nutritional disorder globally and is the leading cause of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). IDA often progresses subtly symptomatic in children, whereas prolonged deficiency may permanently impair development. Early detection and frequent screening are, therefore, essential to avoid the consequences of IDA. In order to reduce the production cost and complexities involved in building advanced ID sensors, the devices were fabricated using a home-built patterning procedure that was developed and used for this work instead of lithography, which allows for fast prototyping of dimensions. In this article, we report the development of graphene-based field-effect transistors (GFETs) functionalized with anti-ferritin antibodies through a linker molecule (1-pyrenebutanoic acid, succinimidyl ester), to facilitate specific conjugation with ferritin antigen. The resulting biosensors feature an unprecedented ferritin detection limit of 10 fM, indicating a tremendous potential for non-invasive (e.g., saliva) ferritin detection.
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