Next Article in Journal
F-DCS: FMI-Based Distributed CPS Simulation Framework with a Redundancy Reduction Algorithm
Next Article in Special Issue
High Speed Crop and Weed Identification in Lettuce Fields for Precision Weeding
Previous Article in Journal
Manufacturing and Characterization of Femtosecond Laser-Inscribed Bragg Grating in Polymer Waveguide Operation in an IR-A Wavelength Range
Previous Article in Special Issue
An Autonomous Fruit and Vegetable Harvester with a Low-Cost Gripper Using a 3D Sensor
Open AccessArticle

Real-Time Electrical Resistivity Measurement and Mapping Platform of the Soils with an Autonomous Robot for Precision Farming Applications

Department of Machine, Technical Science Vocational School, Akdeniz University, 07070 Antalya, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010251
Received: 30 October 2019 / Revised: 30 November 2019 / Accepted: 2 December 2019 / Published: 1 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Sensing Technologies for Agriculture)
Soil electrical resistivity (ER) is an important indicator to indirectly determine soil physical and chemical properties such as moisture, salinity, porosity, organic matter level, bulk density, and soil texture. In this study, real-time ER measurement system has been developed with the help of an autonomous robot. The aim of this study is to provide rapid measurement of the ER in large areas using the Wenner four-probe measurement method for precision farming applications. The ER measurement platform consists of the Wenner probes, a y-axis shifter driven by a DC motor through a gear reducer, all installed on a steel-frame that mount to an autonomous robot. An embedded industrial computer and differential global positioning system (DGPS) were used to assist in real-time measuring, recording, mapping, and displaying the ER and the robot position during the field operation. The data acquisition software was codded in Microsoft Visual Basic.NET. Field experiments were carried out in a 1.2 ha farmland soil. ER and DGPS values were stored in Microsoft SQL Server 2005 database, an ordinary Kriging interpolation technique by ArcGIS was used and the average ER values were mapped for the soil depth between 0 and 50 cm. As a result, ER values were observed to be between 30.757 and 70.732 ohm-m. In conclusion, the experimental results showed that the designed system works quite well in the field and the ER measurement platform is a practical tool for providing real-time soil ER measurements. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil; soil electrical resistivity; autonomous robot; real-time measurement; precision farming; mapping soil; soil electrical resistivity; autonomous robot; real-time measurement; precision farming; mapping
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ünal, İ.; Kabaş, Ö.; Sözer, S. Real-Time Electrical Resistivity Measurement and Mapping Platform of the Soils with an Autonomous Robot for Precision Farming Applications. Sensors 2020, 20, 251.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop