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Sensors 2019, 19(8), 1807; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19081807

Remote Control of Greenhouse Vegetable Production with Artificial Intelligence—Greenhouse Climate, Irrigation, and Crop Production

Wageningen University & Research, Business Unit Greenhouse Horticulture, 6708PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet-of-Things for Precision Agriculture (IoAT))
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Abstract

The global population is increasing rapidly, together with the demand for healthy fresh food. The greenhouse industry can play an important role, but encounters difficulties finding skilled staff to manage crop production. Artificial intelligence (AI) has reached breakthroughs in several areas, however, not yet in horticulture. An international competition on “autonomous greenhouses” aimed to combine horticultural expertise with AI to make breakthroughs in fresh food production with fewer resources. Five international teams, consisting of scientists, professionals, and students with different backgrounds in horticulture and AI, participated in a greenhouse growing experiment. Each team had a 96 m2 modern greenhouse compartment to grow a cucumber crop remotely during a 4-month-period. Each compartment was equipped with standard actuators (heating, ventilation, screening, lighting, fogging, CO2 supply, water and nutrient supply). Control setpoints were remotely determined by teams using their own AI algorithms. Actuators were operated by a process computer. Different sensors continuously collected measurements. Setpoints and measurements were exchanged via a digital interface. Achievements in AI-controlled compartments were compared with a manually operated reference. Detailed results on cucumber yield, resource use, and net profit obtained by teams are explained in this paper. We can conclude that in general AI performed well in controlling a greenhouse. One team outperformed the manually-grown reference. View Full-Text
Keywords: artificial intelligence; sensors; resource use efficiency; crop production; indoor farming artificial intelligence; sensors; resource use efficiency; crop production; indoor farming
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: 10.4121/uuid:e4987a7b-04dd-4c89-9b18-883aad30ba9a
    Description: Dataset “Autonomous Greenhouse Challenge First Edition (2018)”
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Hemming, S.; de Zwart, F.; Elings, A.; Righini, I.; Petropoulou, A. Remote Control of Greenhouse Vegetable Production with Artificial Intelligence—Greenhouse Climate, Irrigation, and Crop Production. Sensors 2019, 19, 1807.

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