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Sensors 2019, 19(8), 1806; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19081806

Variable-Fidelity Simulation Models and Sparse Gradient Updates for Cost-Efficient Optimization of Compact Antenna Input Characteristics

1
School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
2
Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
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Abstract

Design of antennas for the Internet of Things (IoT) applications requires taking into account several performance figures, both electrical (e.g., impedance matching) and field (gain, radiation pattern), but also physical constraints, primarily concerning size limitation. Fulfillment of stringent specifications necessitates the development of topologically complex structures described by a large number of geometry parameters that need tuning. Conventional optimization procedures are typically too expensive when the antenna is evaluated using high-fidelity electromagnetic (EM) analysis, otherwise required to ensure accuracy. This paper proposes a novel surrogate-assisted optimization algorithm for computationally efficient design optimization of antenna structures. In the paper, the optimization of antenna input characteristic is presented, specifically, minimization of the antenna reflection coefficient in a given bandwidth. Our methodology involves variable-fidelity EM simulations as well as a dedicated procedure to reduce the cost of estimating the antenna response gradients. The latter is based on monitoring the variations of the antenna response sensitivities along the optimization path. The procedure suppresses the finite-differentiation-based sensitivity updates for variables that exhibit stable gradient behavior. The proposed algorithm is validated using three compact wideband antennas and demonstrated to outperform both the conventional trust region algorithm and the pattern search procedure, as well as surrogate-based procedures while retaining acceptable design quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: antenna design; internet of things; surrogate-based optimization; trust-region framework; variable-fidelity EM simulations antenna design; internet of things; surrogate-based optimization; trust-region framework; variable-fidelity EM simulations
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Koziel, S.; Pietrenko-Dabrowska, A. Variable-Fidelity Simulation Models and Sparse Gradient Updates for Cost-Efficient Optimization of Compact Antenna Input Characteristics. Sensors 2019, 19, 1806.

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