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Sensors 2019, 19(8), 1769; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19081769

Detection of Gaps in Concrete–Metal Composite Structures Based on the Feature Extraction Method Using Piezoelectric Transducers

1
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, North Ryde 2109, Australia
2
Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Florida A&M University—Florida State University College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL 32310, USA
3
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde 2109, Australia
4
Centre for Infrastructure Engineering, School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, Western Sydney University, Penrith 2751, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 13 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Transducers: Advances in Structural Health Monitoring)
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Abstract

A feature extraction methodology based on lamb waves is developed for the non-invasive detection and prediction of the gap in concrete–metal composite structures, such as concrete-filled steel tubes. A popular feature extraction method, partial least squares regression, is utilised to predict the gaps. The data is collected using the piezoelectric transducers attached to the external surface of the metal of the composite structure. A piezoelectric actuator generates a sine burst signal, which propagates along the metal and is received by a piezoelectric sensor. The partial least squares regression is performed on the raw sensor signal to extract features and to determine the relationship between the signal and the gap size, which is then used to predict the gaps. The applicability of the developed system is tested on two concrete-metal composite specimens. The first specimen consisted of an aluminium plate and the second specimen consisted of a steel plate. This technique is able to detect and predict gaps as low as 0.1 mm. The results demonstrate the applicability of this technique for the gap and debonding detection in concrete-filled steel tubes, which are critical in determining the degree of composite action between concrete and metal. View Full-Text
Keywords: concrete-filled steel tubes; piezoelectric transducers; structural health monitoring; feature extraction; partial least square regression; gaps; debonding concrete-filled steel tubes; piezoelectric transducers; structural health monitoring; feature extraction; partial least square regression; gaps; debonding
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Giri, P.; Mishra, S.; Clark, S.M.; Samali, B. Detection of Gaps in Concrete–Metal Composite Structures Based on the Feature Extraction Method Using Piezoelectric Transducers. Sensors 2019, 19, 1769.

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