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Open AccessArticle

The Validity and Reliability of a Kinect v2-Based Gait Analysis System for Children with Cerebral Palsy

1
Department of Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
2
Auckland Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
3
Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Science, University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
4
College of Rehabilitation Medicine, Fujian University of TCM, Fuzhou 350122, China
5
Research Academy of Grand Health, Faculty of Sports Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(7), 1660; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19071660
Received: 10 March 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 7 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate if Kinect is a valid and reliable clinical gait analysis tool for children with cerebral palsy (CP), and whether linear regression and long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network methods can improve its performance. A gait analysis was conducted on ten children with CP, on two occasions. Lower limb joint kinematics computed from the Kinect and a traditional marker-based Motion Analysis system were investigated by calculating the root mean square errors (RMSE), the coefficients of multiple correlation (CMC), and the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC2,k). Results showed that the Kinect-based kinematics had an overall modest to poor correlation (CMC—less than 0.001 to 0.70) and an angle pattern similarity with Motion Analysis. After the calibration, RMSE on every degree of freedom decreased. The two calibration methods indicated similar levels of improvement in hip sagittal (CMC—0.81 ± 0.10 vs. 0.75 ± 0.22)/frontal (CMC—0.41 ± 0.35 vs. 0.42 ± 0.37) and knee sagittal kinematics (CMC—0.85±0.07 vs. 0.87 ± 0.12). The hip sagittal (CMC—0.97±0.05) and knee sagittal (CMC—0.88 ± 0.12) angle patterns showed a very good agreement over two days. Modest to excellent reliability (ICC2,k—0.45 to 0.93) for most parameters renders it feasible for observing ongoing changes in gait kinematics. View Full-Text
Keywords: Kinect; cerebral palsy; gait analysis; reliability; validity; kinematics Kinect; cerebral palsy; gait analysis; reliability; validity; kinematics
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Ma, Y.; Mithraratne, K.; Wilson, N.C.; Wang, X.; Ma, Y.; Zhang, Y. The Validity and Reliability of a Kinect v2-Based Gait Analysis System for Children with Cerebral Palsy. Sensors 2019, 19, 1660.

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