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Open AccessArticle

Integrated Satellite, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and Ground Inversion of the SPAD of Winter Wheat in the Reviving Stage

National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources, College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, China
Shandong Huibangbohai Agricultural Development Co., Ltd., Dongying 257091, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(7), 1485;
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multivariate Data Analysis for Sensors and Sensor Arrays)
Chlorophyll is the most important component of crop photosynthesis, and the reviving stage is an important period during the rapid growth of winter wheat. Therefore, rapid and precise monitoring of chlorophyll content in winter wheat during the reviving stage is of great significance. The satellite-UAV-ground integrated inversion method is an innovative solution. In this study, the core region of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) is used as a study area. Ground measurements data, UAV multispectral and Sentinel-2A multispectral imagery are used as data sources. First, representative plots in the Hekou District were selected as the core test area, and 140 ground sampling points were selected. Based on the measured SPAD values and UAV multispectral images, UAV-based SPAD inversion models were constructed, and the most accurate model was selected. Second, by comparing satellite and UAV imagery, a reflectance correction for satellite imagery was performed. Finally, based on the UAV-based inversion model and satellite imagery after reflectance correction, the inversion results for SPAD values in multi-scale were obtained. The results showed that green, red, red-edge and near-infrared bands were significantly correlated with SPAD values. The modeling precisions of the best inversion model are R2 = 0.926, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) = 0.63 and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) = 0.92, and the verification precisions are R2 = 0.934, RMSE = 0.78 and MAE = 0.87. The Sentinel-2A imagery after the reflectance correction has a pronounced inversion effect; the SPAD values in the study area were concentrated between 40 and 60, showing an increasing trend from the eastern coast to the southwest and west, with obvious spatial differences. This study synthesizes the advantages of satellite, UAV and ground methods, and the proposed satellite-UAV-ground integrated inversion method has important implications for real-time, rapid and precision SPAD values collected on multiple scales. View Full-Text
Keywords: remote sensing; UAV; Sentinel-2A satellite; SPAD; chlorophyll remote sensing; UAV; Sentinel-2A satellite; SPAD; chlorophyll
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Zhang, S.; Zhao, G.; Lang, K.; Su, B.; Chen, X.; Xi, X.; Zhang, H. Integrated Satellite, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and Ground Inversion of the SPAD of Winter Wheat in the Reviving Stage. Sensors 2019, 19, 1485.

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