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Open AccessArticle

Organoleptic Analysis of Drinking Water Using an Electronic Tongue Based on Electrochemical Microsensors

1
Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC. Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
2
Mina Pública d’Aigües de Terrassa, S.A. C/de la Societat, 26, 08221 Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(6), 1435; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19061435
Received: 23 February 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 23 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multivariate Data Analysis for Sensors and Sensor Arrays)
The standards that establish water’s quality criteria for human consumption include organoleptic analysis. These analyses are performed by taste panels that are not available to all water supply companies with the required frequency. In this work, we propose the use of an electronic tongue to perform organoleptic tests in drinking water. The aim is to automate the whole process of these tests, making them more economical, simple, and accessible. The system is composed by an array of electrochemical microsensors and chemometric tools for multivariable processing to extract the useful chemical information. The array of sensors is composed of six Ion-Sensitive Field Effect Transistors (ISFET)-based sensors, one conductivity sensor, one redox potential sensor, and two amperometric electrodes, one gold microelectrode for chlorine detection, and one nanocomposite planar electrode for sensing electrochemical oxygen demand. A previous study addressed to classify water samples according to taste/smell descriptors (sweet, acidic, salty, bitter, medicinal, chlorinous, mouldy, and earthy) was performed. A second study comparing the results of two organoleptic tests (hedonic evaluation and ranking test) with the electronic tongue, using Partial Least Squares regression, was conducted. The results show that the proposed electronic tongue is capable of analyzing water samples according to their organoleptic characteristics, which can be used as an alternative method to the taste panel. View Full-Text
Keywords: organoleptic tests; electrochemical microsensors; electronic tongue; multivariate methods; drinking water samples organoleptic tests; electrochemical microsensors; electronic tongue; multivariate methods; drinking water samples
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gutiérrez-Capitán, M.; Brull-Fontserè, M.; Jiménez-Jorquera, C. Organoleptic Analysis of Drinking Water Using an Electronic Tongue Based on Electrochemical Microsensors. Sensors 2019, 19, 1435.

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