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Sensors 2019, 19(6), 1365; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19061365

The Dry Revolution: Evaluation of Three Different EEG Dry Electrode Types in Terms of Signal Spectral Features, Mental States Classification and Usability

1
Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
2
BrainSigns srl, via Sesto Celere, 00152 Rome, Italy
3
IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Neuroelectrical Imaging and BCI Lab, Via Ardeatina, 306, 00179 Rome, Italy
4
Department Anatomical, Histological, Forensic & Orthopedic Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
5
College of Computer Science and Technology, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310005, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue EEG Electrodes)
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PDF [3703 KB, uploaded 19 March 2019]
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Abstract

One century after the first recording of human electroencephalographic (EEG) signals, EEG has become one of the most used neuroimaging techniques. The medical devices industry is now able to produce small and reliable EEG systems, enabling a wide variety of applications also with no-clinical aims, providing a powerful tool to neuroscientific research. However, these systems still suffer from a critical limitation, consisting in the use of wet electrodes, that are uncomfortable and require expertise to install and time from the user. In this context, dozens of different concepts of EEG dry electrodes have been recently developed, and there is the common opinion that they are reaching traditional wet electrodes quality standards. However, although many papers have tried to validate them in terms of signal quality and usability, a comprehensive comparison of different dry electrode types from multiple points of view is still missing. The present work proposes a comparison of three different dry electrode types, selected among the main solutions at present, against wet electrodes, taking into account several aspects, both in terms of signal quality and usability. In particular, the three types consisted in gold-coated single pin, multiple pins and solid-gel electrodes. The results confirmed the great standards achieved by dry electrode industry, since it was possible to obtain results comparable to wet electrodes in terms of signals spectra and mental states classification, but at the same time drastically reducing the time of montage and enhancing the comfort. In particular, multiple-pins and solid-gel electrodes overcome gold-coated single-pin-based ones in terms of comfort. View Full-Text
Keywords: brain activity; electroencephalography; wet electrodes; dry electrodes; frequency domain; power spectral density; machine-learning; wearable devices; mental workload brain activity; electroencephalography; wet electrodes; dry electrodes; frequency domain; power spectral density; machine-learning; wearable devices; mental workload
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Di Flumeri, G.; Aricò, P.; Borghini, G.; Sciaraffa, N.; Di Florio, A.; Babiloni, F. The Dry Revolution: Evaluation of Three Different EEG Dry Electrode Types in Terms of Signal Spectral Features, Mental States Classification and Usability. Sensors 2019, 19, 1365.

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