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Sensors 2019, 19(6), 1334; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19061334

Machine Learning Algorithms and Fault Detection for Improved Belief Function Based Decision Fusion in Wireless Sensor Networks

1
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
Department of Computer Systems Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
3
College of Computer and Information Sciences, Prince Sultan University, Riyadh 11586, Saudi Arabia
4
College of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
5
College of Computer Science and Information Technology, Al Baha University, Al Baha 65525, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 17 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

Decision fusion is used to fuse classification results and improve the classification accuracy in order to reduce the consumption of energy and bandwidth demand for data transmission. The decentralized classification fusion problem was the reason to use the belief function-based decision fusion approach in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With the consideration of improving the belief function fusion approach, we have proposed four classification techniques, namely Enhanced K-Nearest Neighbor (EKNN), Enhanced Extreme Learning Machine (EELM), Enhanced Support Vector Machine (ESVM), and Enhanced Recurrent Extreme Learning Machine (ERELM). In addition, WSNs are prone to errors and faults because of their different software, hardware failures, and their deployment in diverse fields. Because of these challenges, efficient fault detection methods must be used to detect faults in a WSN in a timely manner. We have induced four types of faults: offset fault, gain fault, stuck-at fault, and out of bounds fault, and used enhanced classification methods to solve the sensor failure issues. Experimental results show that ERELM gave the first best result for the improvement of the belief function fusion approach. The other three proposed techniques ESVM, EELM, and EKNN provided the second, third, and fourth best results, respectively. The proposed enhanced classifiers are used for fault detection and are evaluated using three performance metrics, i.e., Detection Accuracy (DA), True Positive Rate (TPR), and Error Rate (ER). Simulations show that the proposed methods outperform the existing techniques and give better results for the belief function and fault detection in WSNs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; machine learning classifiers; KNN; ELM; SVM; RELM; belief function Wireless Sensor Networks; machine learning classifiers; KNN; ELM; SVM; RELM; belief function
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Javaid, A.; Javaid, N.; Wadud, Z.; Saba, T.; Sheta, O.E.; Saleem, M.Q.; Alzahrani, M.E. Machine Learning Algorithms and Fault Detection for Improved Belief Function Based Decision Fusion in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2019, 19, 1334.

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