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Open AccessArticle

Design and Accuracy of an Instrumented Insole Using Pressure Sensors for Step Count

Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitation and Social Integration (CIRRIS), Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux de la Capitale-Nationale (CIUSSS-CN), Quebec City, QC G1M2X8, Canada
Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC G1M2X8, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(5), 984;
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 26 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensors Networks for E-Health Applications)
Despite the accessibility of several step count measurement systems, count accuracy in real environments remains a major challenge. Microelectromechanical systems and pressure sensors seem to present a potential solution for step count accuracy. The purpose of this study was to equip an insole with pressure sensors and to test a novel and potentially more accurate method of detecting steps. Methods: Five force-sensitive resistors (FSR) were integrated under the heel, the first, third, and fifth metatarsal heads and the great toe. This system was tested with twelve healthy participants at self-selected and maximal walking speeds in indoor and outdoor settings. Step counts were computed based on previously reported calculation methods, individual and averaged FSR-signals, and a new method: cumulative sum of all FSR-signals. These data were compared to a direct visual step count for accuracy analysis. Results: This system accurately detected steps with success rates ranging from 95.5 ± 3.5% to 98.5 ± 2.1% (indoor) and from 96.5 ± 3.9% to 98.0 ± 2.3% (outdoor) for self-selected walking speeds and from 98.1 ± 2.7% to 99.0 ± 0.7% (indoor) and 97.0 ± 6.2% to 99.4 ± 0.7% (outdoor) for maximal walking speeds. Cumulative sum of pressure signals during the stance phase showed high step detection accuracy (99.5 ± 0.7%–99.6 ± 0.4%) and appeared to be a valid method of step counting. Conclusions: The accuracy of step counts varied according to the calculation methods, with cumulative sum-based method being highly accurate. View Full-Text
Keywords: insole; pressure sensors; algorithms; step count; accuracy; healthy participant insole; pressure sensors; algorithms; step count; accuracy; healthy participant
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Ngueleu, A.M.; Blanchette, A.K.; Bouyer, L.; Maltais, D.; McFadyen, B.J.; Moffet, H.; Batcho, C.S. Design and Accuracy of an Instrumented Insole Using Pressure Sensors for Step Count. Sensors 2019, 19, 984.

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