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Sensors 2019, 19(5), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051240

Reduced Overhead Routing in Short-Range Low-Power and Lossy Wireless Networks

1
Nimbus Research Centre, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork T12P928, Ireland
2
School of Computer Science and IT, University College Cork, Cork T12P928, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in “Farooq, M.O.; Pesch, D. ERPL: An Enhanced Peer-to-Peer Routing Mechanism for Low-Power and Lossy Networks. In Proceedings of the 2018 11th IFIP Wireless and Mobile Networking Conference (WMNC), Prague, Czech Republic, 3–5 September 2018”.
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things and Machine-to-Machine Communication)
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Abstract

In this paper we present enhanced routing protocol for low-lower and lossy networks (ERPL), a reduced overhead routing protocol for short-range low-power and lossy wireless networks, based on RPL. ERPL enhances peer-to-peer (P2P) route construction and data packet forwarding in RPL’s storing and non-storing modes of operation (MoPs). In order to minimize source routing overhead, it encodes routing paths in Bloom Filters (BF). The salient features of ERPL include the following: (i) optimized P2P routing and data forwarding; (ii) no additional control messages; and (iii) minimized source routing overhead. We extensively evaluated ERPL against RPL using emulation, simulation, and physical test-bed based experiments. Our results demonstrate that ERPL outperforms standard RPL in P2P communication and its optimized P2P route construction and data forwarding algorithms also positively impact the protocol’s performance in multi-point to point (MP2P) and point to multi-point (P2MP) communications. Our results demonstrate that the BF-based approach towards compressed source routing information is feasible for the kinds of networks considered in this paper. The BF-based approach results in 65% lower source routing control overhead compared to RPL. Our results also provide new insights into the performance of MP2P, P2MP, and P2P communications relative to RPL’s destination-oriented directed a-cyclic graph (DODAG) depth, i.e., a deeper DODAG negatively impacts the performance of MP2P and P2MP communications, however it positively impacts P2P communication, while the reverse holds true for a relatively shallow DODAG. View Full-Text
Keywords: low-power and lossy networks (LLNs); short-range wireless networks; routing protocol; probabilistic forwarding low-power and lossy networks (LLNs); short-range wireless networks; routing protocol; probabilistic forwarding
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Farooq, M.O.; Pesch, D. Reduced Overhead Routing in Short-Range Low-Power and Lossy Wireless Networks. Sensors 2019, 19, 1240.

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