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Open AccessArticle

Lightweight Cipher for H.264 Videos in the Internet of Multimedia Things with Encryption Space Ratio Diagnostics

1
Department of Computer Science & IT, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
2
Software Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, N37 HD68 Westmeath, Ireland
3
Department of Computer Science, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
4
School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Colchester CO4 3SQ, Essex, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(5), 1228; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051228
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
Within an Internet of Multimedia Things, the risk of disclosing streamed video content, such as that arising from video surveillance, is of heightened concern. This leads to the encryption of that content. To reduce the overhead and the lack of flexibility arising from full encryption of the content, a good number of selective-encryption algorithms have been proposed in the last decade. Some of them have limitations, in terms of: significant delay due to computational cost, or excess memory utilization, or, despite being energy efficient, not providing a satisfactory level of confidentiality, due to their simplicity. To address such limitations, this paper presents a lightweight selective encryption scheme, in which encoder syntax elements are encrypted with the innovative EXPer (extended permutation with exclusive OR). The selected syntax elements are taken from the final stage of video encoding that is during the entropy coding stage. As a diagnostic tool, the Encryption Space Ratio measures encoding complexity of the video relative to the level of encryption so as to judge the success of the encryption process, according to entropy coder. A detailed comparative analysis of EXPer with other state-of-the-art encryption algorithms confirms that EXPer provides significant confidentiality with a small computational cost and a negligible encryption bitrate overhead. Thus, the results demonstrate that the proposed security scheme is a suitable choice for constrained devices in an Internet of Multimedia Things environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: encryption space ratio; entropy coding; H.264/AVC; Internet of Multimedia Things; lightweight cipher; selective encryption encryption space ratio; entropy coding; H.264/AVC; Internet of Multimedia Things; lightweight cipher; selective encryption
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shifa, A.; Asghar, M.N.; Noor, S.; Gohar, N.; Fleury, M. Lightweight Cipher for H.264 Videos in the Internet of Multimedia Things with Encryption Space Ratio Diagnostics. Sensors 2019, 19, 1228. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051228

AMA Style

Shifa A, Asghar MN, Noor S, Gohar N, Fleury M. Lightweight Cipher for H.264 Videos in the Internet of Multimedia Things with Encryption Space Ratio Diagnostics. Sensors. 2019; 19(5):1228. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051228

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shifa, Amna; Asghar, Mamoona N.; Noor, Salma; Gohar, Neelam; Fleury, Martin. 2019. "Lightweight Cipher for H.264 Videos in the Internet of Multimedia Things with Encryption Space Ratio Diagnostics" Sensors 19, no. 5: 1228. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051228

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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