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Sensors 2019, 19(3), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030535

Comparing UAV-Based Technologies and RGB-D Reconstruction Methods for Plant Height and Biomass Monitoring on Grass Ley

1
Department of Grassland and Livestock, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, NIBIO Særheim, Postvegen 213, 4353 Klepp Stasjon, Norway
2
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Consejo Superior Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Serrano 115b, 28006 Madrid, Spain
3
Centre for Automation and Robotics, Consejo Superior Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Ctra. de Campo Real km 0.200 La Poveda, 28500 Arganda del Rey (Madrid), Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Sensor Technology in Agriculture)
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Abstract

Pastures are botanically diverse and difficult to characterize. Digital modeling of pasture biomass and quality by non-destructive methods can provide highly valuable support for decision-making. This study aimed to evaluate aerial and on-ground methods to characterize grass ley fields, estimating plant height, biomass and volume, using digital grass models. Two fields were sampled, one timothy-dominant and the other ryegrass-dominant. Both sensing systems allowed estimation of biomass, volume and plant height, which were compared with ground truth, also taking into consideration basic economical aspects. To obtain ground-truth data for validation, 10 plots of 1 m2 were manually and destructively sampled on each field. The studied systems differed in data resolution, thus in estimation capability. There was a reasonably good agreement between the UAV-based, the RGB-D-based estimates and the manual height measurements on both fields. RGB-D-based estimation correlated well with ground truth of plant height ( R 2 > 0.80 ) for both fields, and with dry biomass ( R 2 = 0.88 ), only for the timothy field. RGB-D-based estimation of plant volume for ryegrass showed a high agreement ( R 2 = 0.87 ). The UAV-based system showed a weaker estimation capability for plant height and dry biomass ( R 2 < 0.6 ). UAV-systems are more affordable, easier to operate and can cover a larger surface. On-ground techniques with RGB-D cameras can produce highly detailed models, but with more variable results than UAV-based models. On-ground RGB-D data can be effectively analysed with open source software, which is a cost reduction advantage, compared with aerial image analysis. Since the resolution for agricultural operations does not need fine identification the end-details of the grass plants, the use of aerial platforms could result a better option in grasslands. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D crop modeling; remote sensing; on-ground sensing; depth images; parameter acquisition 3D crop modeling; remote sensing; on-ground sensing; depth images; parameter acquisition
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Rueda-Ayala, V.P.; Peña, J.M.; Höglind, M.; Bengochea-Guevara, J.M.; Andújar, D. Comparing UAV-Based Technologies and RGB-D Reconstruction Methods for Plant Height and Biomass Monitoring on Grass Ley. Sensors 2019, 19, 535.

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