Next Article in Journal
Spectral Data Collection by Dual Field-of-View System under Changing Atmospheric Conditions—A Case Study of Estimating Early Season Soybean Populations
Next Article in Special Issue
An Interdigital Capacitor for Microwave Heating at 25 GHz and Wideband Dielectric Sensing of nL Volumes in Continuous Microfluidics
Previous Article in Journal
A Sitting Posture Monitoring Instrument to Assess Different Levels of Cognitive Engagement
Previous Article in Special Issue
An LC Passive Wireless Gas Sensor Based on PANI/CNT Composite
Open AccessArticle

Multi-Band MIMO Antenna Design with User-Impact Investigation for 4G and 5G Mobile Terminals

1
Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK
2
Microwave Technology Company, Ardabil 56158-46984, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(3), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030456
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
In this study, we propose a design of a multi-band slot antenna array applicable for fourth-generation (4G) and fifth-generation (5G) smartphones. The design is composed of double-element square-ring slot radiators fed by microstrip-line structures for easy integration with radio frequency (RF)/microwave circuitry. The slot radiators are located on the corners of the smartphone printed circuit board (PCB) with an overall dimension of 75 × 150 mm2. The proposed multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna is designed to meet the requirements of 4G and 5G mobile terminals with essential bandwidth for higher data rate applications. For −10 dB impedance bandwidth, each single-element of the proposed MIMO design can cover the frequency ranges of 2.5–2.7 GHz (long-term evolution (LTE) 2600), 3.45–3.8 GHz (LTE bands 42/43), and 5.00–5.45 GHz (LTE band 46). However, for −6 dB impedance bandwidth, the radiation elements cover the frequency ranges of 2.45–2.82 GHz, 3.35–4.00 GHz, and 4.93–5.73 GHz. By employing the microstrip feed lines at the four different sides of smartphone PCB, the isolation of the radiators has been enhanced and shows better than 17 dB isolation levels over all operational bands. The MIMO antenna is implemented on an FR-4 dielectric and provides good properties including S-parameters, efficiency, and radiation pattern coverage. The performance of the antenna is validated by measurements of the prototype. The simulation results for user-hand/user-head impacts and specific absorption rate (SAR) levels of the antenna are discussed, and good results are achieved. In addition, the antenna elements have the potential to be used as 8-element/dual-polarized resonators. View Full-Text
Keywords: 4G; 5G; double-element slot antenna; LTE; MIMO system; mobile terminal; user-impact 4G; 5G; double-element slot antenna; LTE; MIMO system; mobile terminal; user-impact
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ojaroudi Parchin, N.; Jahanbakhsh Basherlou, H.; Al-Yasir, Y.I.A.; Ullah, A.; Abd-Alhameed, R.A.; Noras, J.M. Multi-Band MIMO Antenna Design with User-Impact Investigation for 4G and 5G Mobile Terminals. Sensors 2019, 19, 456.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop