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Sensors 2019, 19(3), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030452

A Low-Cost Indoor Activity Monitoring System for Detecting Frailty in Older Adults

Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Thessaloniki 57001, Greece
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This paper is an extended version of conference paper: Tegou, T.; Kalamaras, I.; Votis, K.; Tzovaras, D. A low-cost room-level indoor localization system with easy setup for medical applications. In Proceedings of the 11th IFIP Wireless and Mobile Networking Conference (WMNC), Prague, Czech Republic, 3–5 September 2018.
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things and Machine-to-Machine Communication)
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Abstract

Indoor localization systems have already wide applications mainly for providing localized information and directions. The majority of them focus on commercial applications providing information such us advertisements, guidance and asset tracking. Medical oriented localization systems are uncommon. Given the fact that an individual’s indoor movements can be indicative of his/her clinical status, in this paper we present a low-cost indoor localization system with room-level accuracy used to assess the frailty of older people. We focused on designing a system with easy installation and low cost to be used by non technical staff. The system was installed in older people houses in order to collect data about their indoor localization habits. The collected data were examined in combination with their frailty status, showing a correlation between them. The indoor localization system is based on the processing of Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) measurements by a tracking device, from Bluetooth Beacons, using a fingerprint-based procedure. The system has been tested in realistic settings achieving accuracy above 93% in room estimation. The proposed system was used in 271 houses collecting data for 1–7-day sessions. The evaluation of the collected data using ten-fold cross-validation showed an accuracy of 83% in the classification of a monitored person regarding his/her frailty status (Frail, Pre-frail, Non-frail). View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor localization; Bluetooth beacons; room-level accuracy; frailty level assessment indoor localization; Bluetooth beacons; room-level accuracy; frailty level assessment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Tegou, T.; Kalamaras, I.; Tsipouras, M.; Giannakeas, N.; Votis, K.; Tzovaras, D. A Low-Cost Indoor Activity Monitoring System for Detecting Frailty in Older Adults. Sensors 2019, 19, 452.

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