On-board portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) are part of the type approval, in-service conformity, and market surveillance aspects of the European exhaust emissions regulation. Currently, only solid particles >23 nm are counted, but Europe will introduce a lower limit of 10 nm. In this study, we evaluated a 10-nm prototype portable system comparing it with laboratory systems measuring diesel, gasoline, and CNG (compressed natural gas) vehicles with emission levels ranging from approximately 2 × 1010
to 2 × 1012
#/km. The results showed that the on-board system differed from the laboratory 10-nm system on average for the tested driving cycles by less than approximately 10% at levels below 6 × 1011
#/km and by approximately 20% for high-emitting vehicles. The observed differences were similar to those observed in the evaluation of portable >23 nm particle counting systems, despite the relatively small size of the emitted particles (with geometric mean diameters <42 nm) and the additional challenges associated with sub-23 nm measurements. The latter included the presence of semivolatile sub-23 nm particles, the elevated concentration levels during cold start, and also the formation of sub-23 nm artefacts from the elastomers that are used to connect the tailpipe to the measurement devices. The main conclusion of the study is that >10 nm on-board systems can be ready for introduction in future regulations.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited