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Article

Evaluation of a 10 nm Particle Number Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS)

1
European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 21027 Ispra, Italy
2
AVL GmbH, 8020 Graz, Austria
3
BOSMAL Automotive R&D Institute Ltd., 43300 Bielsko-Biala, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5531; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245531
Received: 23 November 2019 / Revised: 3 December 2019 / Accepted: 12 December 2019 / Published: 14 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Particulate Matter and Air Pollution)
On-board portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) are part of the type approval, in-service conformity, and market surveillance aspects of the European exhaust emissions regulation. Currently, only solid particles >23 nm are counted, but Europe will introduce a lower limit of 10 nm. In this study, we evaluated a 10-nm prototype portable system comparing it with laboratory systems measuring diesel, gasoline, and CNG (compressed natural gas) vehicles with emission levels ranging from approximately 2 × 1010 to 2 × 1012 #/km. The results showed that the on-board system differed from the laboratory 10-nm system on average for the tested driving cycles by less than approximately 10% at levels below 6 × 1011 #/km and by approximately 20% for high-emitting vehicles. The observed differences were similar to those observed in the evaluation of portable >23 nm particle counting systems, despite the relatively small size of the emitted particles (with geometric mean diameters <42 nm) and the additional challenges associated with sub-23 nm measurements. The latter included the presence of semivolatile sub-23 nm particles, the elevated concentration levels during cold start, and also the formation of sub-23 nm artefacts from the elastomers that are used to connect the tailpipe to the measurement devices. The main conclusion of the study is that >10 nm on-board systems can be ready for introduction in future regulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: vehicle emissions; real-driving emissions (RDE); chassis dynamometer; portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS); particle measurement programme (PMP); calibration; solid particle number; diffusion charger vehicle emissions; real-driving emissions (RDE); chassis dynamometer; portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS); particle measurement programme (PMP); calibration; solid particle number; diffusion charger
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MDPI and ACS Style

Giechaskiel, B.; Mamakos, A.; Woodburn, J.; Szczotka, A.; Bielaczyc, P. Evaluation of a 10 nm Particle Number Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS). Sensors 2019, 19, 5531. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245531

AMA Style

Giechaskiel B, Mamakos A, Woodburn J, Szczotka A, Bielaczyc P. Evaluation of a 10 nm Particle Number Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS). Sensors. 2019; 19(24):5531. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245531

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giechaskiel, Barouch, Athanasios Mamakos, Joseph Woodburn, Andrzej Szczotka, and Piotr Bielaczyc. 2019. "Evaluation of a 10 nm Particle Number Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS)" Sensors 19, no. 24: 5531. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245531

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