# Statistical Scene-Based Non-Uniformity Correction Method with Interframe Registration

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Non-Uniformity Correction

#### 2.1. Non-Uniformity Observation Model

#### 2.2. Non-Uniformity Correction Method Based on Inter-Frame Registration

#### 2.3. Non-Uniformity Correction Method Based on Consistency of Adjacent Pixels

## 3. Proposed Method

#### 3.1. Modular Pixel Consistency Correction Method

#### 3.2. Interframe Registration NUC with Statistical Gain

## 4. Experimental Results and Comparative Study of Related Methods

#### 4.1. Evaluation

#### 4.2. Non-Uniformity Correction with Time Variation in Different Scenes

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

- Yousefi, B.; Sojasi, S.; Castanedo, C.I.; Maldague, X.P.; Beaudoin, G.; Chamberland, M. Continuum removal for ground-based LWIR hyperspectral infrared imagery applying non-negative matrix factorization. Appl. Opt.
**2018**, 57, 6219–6228. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Yousefi, B.; Fleuret, J.; Zhang, H.; Maldague, X.P.; Watt, R.; Klein, M. Automated assessment and tracking of human body thermal variations using unsupervised clustering. Appl. Opt.
**2016**, 55, D162. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version] - Scribner, D.A.; Kruer, M.R.; Killiany, J.M. Infrared focal plane array technology. Proc. IEEE
**1991**, 79, 66–85. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Milton, A.F.; Barone, F.R.; Kruer, M.R. Influence of Nonuniformity on Infrared Focal Plane Array Performance. Opt. Eng.
**1985**, 24, 855–862. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Hardie, R.C.; Hayat, M.M.; Armstrong, E.; Yasuda, B. Scene-based nonuniformity correction with video sequences and registration. Appl. Opt.
**2000**, 39, 1241–1250. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Ratliff, B.M.; Hayat, M.M.; Hardie, R.C. An algebraic algorithm for nonuniformity correction in focal-plane arrays. JOSA A
**2002**, 19, 1737–1747. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Wang, J.; Zhou, Z.; Leng, H.; Wu, Q. A non-uniformity correction algorithm based on single infrared image. J. Inf. Comput. Sci.
**2015**, 12, 101–110. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Averbuch, A.; Liron, G.; Bobrovsky, B.Z. Scene based non-uniformity correction in thermal images using Kalman filter. Image Vis. Comput.
**2007**, 25, 833–851. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Liu, C.; Sui, X. Improved calibration-based non-uniformity correction method for uncooled infrared camera. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng.
**2017**, 10404, 104040X. [Google Scholar] - Zheng, R.H.; Chen, Q. The Research of Scene-based Methods on Infrared Nonuniformity Correction. Optoelecfron. Technol.
**2003**, 23, 241–244. [Google Scholar] - Jiang, G. Adaptive nonuniformity correction of IRFPA. J. Infrared Millim. Waves
**2001**, 20, 93–96. [Google Scholar] - Friedenberg, A.; Goldblatt, I. Nonuniformity two-point linear correction errors in infrared focal plane arrays. Opt. Eng.
**1998**, 37, 1251–1253. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Torres, S.N.; Vera, E.M. Adaptive scene-based nonuniformity correction method for infrared-focal plane arrays. Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.
**2003**, 5076, 130–139. [Google Scholar] - Torres, S.N.; Pezoa, J.E.; Hayat, M.M. Scene-based nonuniformity correction for focal plane arrays by the method of the inverse covariance form. Appl. Opt.
**2003**, 42, 5872–5881. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version] - Harris, J.G.; Chiang, Y.M. Nonuniformity correction using the constant-statistics constraint: Analog and digital implementations. Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.
**1997**, 3061, 895–905. [Google Scholar] - Boutemedjet, A.; Deng, C.; Zhao, B. Robust approach for nonuniformity correction in infrared focal plane array. Sensors
**2016**, 16, 1890. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version] - Li, Y.; Jin, W.; Zhu, J.; Zhang, X.; Li, S. An Adaptive Deghosting Method in Neural Network-Based Infrared Detectors Nonuniformity Correction. Sensors
**2018**, 18, 211. [Google Scholar] - Hayat, M.M.; Torres, S.N.; Armstrong, E.; Cain, S.C.; Yasuda, B. Statistical Algorithm for Nonuniformity Correction in Focal-Plane Arrays. Appl. Opt.
**1999**, 38, 772–780. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Geng, L.; Chen, Q.; Qian, W. An Adjacent Differential Statistics Method for IRFPA Nonuniformity Correction. IEEE Photonics J.
**2013**, 5, 6801615. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Ning, L.; Hang, Q. A time-domain projection-based registration-scene-based nonuniformity correction technology and its detailed hardware realization. Opt. Rev.
**2014**, 21, 17–26. [Google Scholar] - Zuo, C.; Chen, Q.; Gu, G.; Sui, X. Scene-based nonuniformity correction algorithm based on interframe registration. J. Opt. Soc. Am.
**2011**, 28, 1164–1176. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Rong, S.-H.; Zhou, H.-X.; Qin, H.-L.; Lai, R.; Qian, K. Guided filter and adaptive learning rate based non-uniformity correction algorithm for infrared focal plane array. Infrared Phys. Technol.
**2016**, 76, 691–697. [Google Scholar] - Perry, D.L.; Dereniak, E.L. Linear theory of nonuniformity correction in infrared staring sensors. Opt. Eng.
**1993**, 32, 1854. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Foroosh, H.; Zerubia, J.B.; Berthod, M. Extension of phase correlation to subpixel registration. IEEE Trans. Image Process
**2002**, 11, 188–200. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]

**Figure 1.**Scheme of the proposed statistical scene-based non-uniformity correction method with interframe registration (SIR).

**Figure 4.**Pixel value distribution contrast map before and after CSIR NUC. (

**a**) pixel value distribution contrast map before CSIR; (

**b**) pixel value distribution contrast map after CSIR; (

**c**) corresponding picture before CSIR; (

**d**) corresponding picture after CSIR.

**Figure 5.**NUC performance comparison of representative frame of the three test sequences: (

**1**,

**5**,

**9**) original images; (

**2**,

**6**,

**10**) two-point method; (

**3**,

**7**,

**11**) IRLMS method; and (

**4**,

**8**,

**12**) proposed SIR method.

Parameters | Value |
---|---|

Manufacturer | Sofradir |

Spectral band pass $(\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{m})$ | 7.7–11.3 |

Array size | 320 × 256 |

Pixel size $(\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{m})$ | 30 |

NETD (mK) | 17.32 |

ADC resolution (bit) | 14 |

Operating temperature (°C) | −196 |

Full frame rate (f/s) | 100 |

Focal length (mm) | 38 |

F/# | 2 |

Integration time $(\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{s})$ | 300 |

Sequence 1 | Sequence 2 | Sequence 3 | |
---|---|---|---|

Original image | 4.21 | 6.29 | 2.85 |

Two points | 4.05 | 5.01 | 1.23 |

Statically method | 3.91 | 6.03 | 0.79 |

IRLMS | 4.07 | 6.01 | 2.63 |

CSIR | 3.88 | 4.94 | 0.54 |

NSIR | 4.02 | 5.34 | 1.05 |

Sequence 1 | Sequence 2 | Sequence 3 | |
---|---|---|---|

IRLMS | 1000 | 1000 | 1000 |

CSIR | 200 | 200 | 200 |

NSIR | 500 | 500 | 500 |

Sequence 1 | Sequence 2 | Sequence 3 | |
---|---|---|---|

Original image | 3.73 | 6.05 | 2.63 |

Two points | 3.38 | 5.00 | 0.92 |

Statically method | 3.32 | 5.51 | 0.98 |

IRLMS | 3.58 | 5.94 | 2.60 |

CSIR | 2.83 | 5.31 | 0.48 |

NSIR | 3.01 | 4.98 | 0.84 |

© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Lv, B.; Tong, S.; Liu, Q.; Sun, H.
Statistical Scene-Based Non-Uniformity Correction Method with Interframe Registration. *Sensors* **2019**, *19*, 5395.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245395

**AMA Style**

Lv B, Tong S, Liu Q, Sun H.
Statistical Scene-Based Non-Uniformity Correction Method with Interframe Registration. *Sensors*. 2019; 19(24):5395.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245395

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Lv, Baolin, Shoufeng Tong, Qiaoyuan Liu, and Haijiang Sun.
2019. "Statistical Scene-Based Non-Uniformity Correction Method with Interframe Registration" *Sensors* 19, no. 24: 5395.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245395