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Experimental Evaluation of a UWB-Based Cooperative Positioning System for Pedestrians in GNSS-Denied Environment

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Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
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Department of Geodesy and Geoinformation, TU Wien-Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna, Austria
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Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, India
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School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 157 73 Athens, Greece
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Interdepartmental Research Center of Geomatics, University of Padova, 35020 Legnaro, Italy
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Department of Civil, Environmental and Geodetic Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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Department of Geospatial Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia
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Leica Geosystems, 9435 Heerbrugg, Switzerland
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Institute of Geodesy of the University of Warmia and Mazury, 11-041 Olsztyn, Poland
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College of Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(23), 5274; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235274
Received: 18 October 2019 / Revised: 22 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 29 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
Cooperative positioning (CP) utilises information sharing among multiple nodes to enable positioning in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-denied environments. This paper reports the performance of a CP system for pedestrians using Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) technology in GNSS-denied environments. This data set was collected as part of a benchmarking measurement campaign carried out at the Ohio State University in October 2017. Pedestrians were equipped with a variety of sensors, including two different UWB systems, on a specially designed helmet serving as a mobile multi-sensor platform for CP. Different users were walking in stop-and-go mode along trajectories with predefined checkpoints and under various challenging environments. In the developed CP network, both Peer-to-Infrastructure (P2I) and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) measurements are used for positioning of the pedestrians. It is realised that the proposed system can achieve decimetre-level accuracies (on average, around 20 cm) in the complete absence of GNSS signals, provided that the measurements from infrastructure nodes are available and the network geometry is good. In the absence of these good conditions, the results show that the average accuracy degrades to meter level. Further, it is experimentally demonstrated that inclusion of P2P cooperative range observations further enhances the positioning accuracy and, in extreme cases when only one infrastructure measurement is available, P2P CP may reduce positioning errors by up to 95 % . The complete test setup, the methodology for development, and data collection are discussed in this paper. In the next version of this system, additional observations such as the Wi-Fi, camera, and other signals of opportunity will be included. View Full-Text
Keywords: cooperative positioning; extended kalman filter; Indoor positioning; relative ranging; ultra-wideband cooperative positioning; extended kalman filter; Indoor positioning; relative ranging; ultra-wideband
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Gabela, J.; Retscher, G.; Goel, S.; Perakis, H.; Masiero, A.; Toth, C.; Gikas, V.; Kealy, A.; Koppányi, Z.; Błaszczak-Bąk, W.; Li, Y.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D. Experimental Evaluation of a UWB-Based Cooperative Positioning System for Pedestrians in GNSS-Denied Environment. Sensors 2019, 19, 5274.

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