In this work, we present a new theoretical model for use in contact resonance atomic force microscopy. This model incorporates the effects of a long, massive sensing tip and is especially useful to interpret operation in the so-called trolling mode. The model is based on traditional Euler–Bernoulli beam theory, whereby the effect of the tip as well as of the sample in contact, modeled as an elastic substrate, are captured by appropriate boundary conditions. A novel interpretation of the flexural and torsional modes of vibration of the cantilever, when not in contact with the sample, is used to estimate the inertia properties of the long, massive tip. Using this information, sample elastic properties are then estimated from the in-contact resonance frequencies of the system. The predictive capability of the proposed model is verified via finite element analysis. Different combinations of cantilever geometry, tip geometry, and sample stiffness are investigated. The model’s accurate predictive ranges are discussed and shown to outperform those of other popular models currently used in contact resonance atomic force microscopy.
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