Wireless NanoSensor Networks (WNSNs) are a new type of network that combines nanotechnology and sensor networks. Because WNSNs have great application prospects in intra-body health monitoring, biomedicine and damage detection, intra-body Wireless NanoSensor Networks (iWNSNs) have become a new research hotspot. An energy balance clustering routing protocol (EBCR) is proposed for the intra-body nanosensor nodes with low computing and processing capabilities, short communication range and limited energy storage. The protocol reduces the communication load of nano-nodes by adopting a new hierarchical clustering method. The nano-nodes in the cluster can transmit data directly to the cluster head nodes by one-hop, and the cluster head nodes can transmit data to the nano control node by multi-hop routing among themselves. Furthermore, there is a tradeoff between distance and channel capacity when choosing the next hop node in order to reduce energy consumption while ensuring successful data packet transmission. The simulation results show that the protocol has great advantages in balancing energy consumption, prolonging network lifetime and ensuring data packet transmission success rate. It can be seen that EBCR protocol can be used as an effective routing scheme for iWNSNs.
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