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Open AccessArticle

Parking Line Based SLAM Approach Using AVM/LiDAR Sensor Fusion for Rapid and Accurate Loop Closing and Parking Space Detection

1
Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
2
Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Suwon 16229, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(21), 4811; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214811
Received: 31 August 2019 / Revised: 27 October 2019 / Accepted: 1 November 2019 / Published: 5 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobile Robot Navigation)
Parking is a challenging task for autonomous vehicles and requires a centimeter level precision of distance measurement for safe parking at a destination to avoid collisions with nearby vehicles. In order to avoid collisions with parked vehicles while parking, real-time localization performance should be maintained even when loop closing occurs. This study proposes a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) method, using around view monitor (AVM)/light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor fusion, that provides rapid loop closing performance. We extract the parking line features by utilizing the sensor fusion data for sparse feature-based pose graph optimization that boosts the loop closing speed. Hence, the proposed method can perform the loop closing within a few milliseconds to compensate for the accumulative errors even in a large-scale outdoor environment, which is much faster than other LiDAR-based SLAM algorithms. Therefore, it easily satisfies real-time localization performance. Furthermore, thanks to the parking line features, the proposed method can detect a parking space by utilizing the accumulated parking lines in the map. The experiment was performed in three outdoor parking lots to validate the localization performance and parking space detection performance. All of the proposed methods can be operated in real-time in a single-CPU environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: autonomous vehicle; autonomous valet parking; SLAM; around view monitor (AVM); LiDAR; sensor fusion; parking space detection autonomous vehicle; autonomous valet parking; SLAM; around view monitor (AVM); LiDAR; sensor fusion; parking space detection
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Im, G.; Kim, M.; Park, J. Parking Line Based SLAM Approach Using AVM/LiDAR Sensor Fusion for Rapid and Accurate Loop Closing and Parking Space Detection. Sensors 2019, 19, 4811.

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