The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has increased strongly over the past decades, and so has the demand for adequate behavioral assessment and support for persons affected by ASD. Here we provide a review on original research that used sensor technology for an objective assessment of social behavior, either with the aim to assist the assessment of autism or with the aim to use this technology for intervention and support of people with autism. Considering rapid technological progress, we focus (1) on studies published within the last 10 years (2009–2019), (2) on contact- and irritation-free sensor technology that does not constrain natural movement and interaction, and (3) on sensory input from the face, the voice, or body movements. We conclude that sensor technology has already demonstrated its great potential for improving both behavioral assessment and interventions in autism spectrum disorders. We also discuss selected examples for recent theoretical questions related to the understanding of psychological changes and potentials in autism. In addition to its applied potential, we argue that sensor technology—when implemented by appropriate interdisciplinary teams—may even contribute to such theoretical issues in understanding autism.
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