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Article

Assessing Older Adults’ Daily Mobility: A Comparison of GPS-Derived and Self-Reported Mobility Indicators

1
Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
2
University Research Priority Program “Dynamics of Healthy Aging”, University of Zurich, Andreasstrasse 15, 8050 Zurich, Switzerland
3
Institute of Movement and Sport Gerontology, German Sport University Cologne, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf 6, 50933 Cologne, Germany
4
Department of Geriatric Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, LVR Hospital Cologne, Wilhelm-Griesinger-Straße 23, 51109 Cologne, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4551; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204551
Received: 27 August 2019 / Revised: 12 October 2019 / Accepted: 15 October 2019 / Published: 19 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Motion Sensors Applied in Older Adults)
Interest in global positioning system (GPS)-based mobility assessment for health and aging research is growing, and with it the demand for validated GPS-based mobility indicators. Time out of home (TOH) and number of activity locations (#ALs) are two indicators that are often derived from GPS data, despite lacking consensus regarding thresholds to be used to extract those as well as limited knowledge about their validity. Using 7 days of GPS and diary data of 35 older adults, we make the following three main contributions. First, we perform a sensitivity analysis to investigate how using spatial and temporal thresholds to compute TOH and #ALs affects the agreement between self-reported and GPS-based indicators. Second, we show how daily self-reported and GPS-derived mobility indicators are compared. Third, we explore whether the type and duration of self-reported activity events are related to the degree of correspondence between reported and GPS event. Highest indicator agreement was found for temporal interpolation (Tmax) of up to 5 h for both indicators, a radius (Dmax) to delineate home between 100 and 200 m for TOH, and for #ALs a spatial extent (Dmax) between 125 and 200 m, and temporal extent (Tmin) between 5 and 6 min to define an activity location. High agreement between self-reported and GPS-based indicators is obtained for TOH and moderate agreement for #ALs. While reported event type and duration impact on whether a reported event has a matching GPS event, indoor and outdoor events are detected at equal proportions. This work will help future studies to choose optimal threshold settings and will provide knowledge about the validity of mobility indicators. View Full-Text
Keywords: healthy aging; mobility; mobility indicators; real-life; convergent validity; global positioning system; self-reports; sensor-based; time out of home; activity location healthy aging; mobility; mobility indicators; real-life; convergent validity; global positioning system; self-reports; sensor-based; time out of home; activity location
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fillekes, M.P.; Kim, E.-K.; Trumpf, R.; Zijlstra, W.; Giannouli, E.; Weibel, R. Assessing Older Adults’ Daily Mobility: A Comparison of GPS-Derived and Self-Reported Mobility Indicators. Sensors 2019, 19, 4551. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204551

AMA Style

Fillekes MP, Kim E-K, Trumpf R, Zijlstra W, Giannouli E, Weibel R. Assessing Older Adults’ Daily Mobility: A Comparison of GPS-Derived and Self-Reported Mobility Indicators. Sensors. 2019; 19(20):4551. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204551

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fillekes, Michelle P., Eun-Kyeong Kim, Rieke Trumpf, Wiebren Zijlstra, Eleftheria Giannouli, and Robert Weibel. 2019. "Assessing Older Adults’ Daily Mobility: A Comparison of GPS-Derived and Self-Reported Mobility Indicators" Sensors 19, no. 20: 4551. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204551

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