Interest in global positioning system (GPS)-based mobility assessment for health and aging research is growing, and with it the demand for validated GPS-based mobility indicators. Time out of home (TOH) and number of activity locations (#ALs) are two indicators that are often derived from GPS data, despite lacking consensus regarding thresholds to be used to extract those as well as limited knowledge about their validity. Using 7 days of GPS and diary data of 35 older adults, we make the following three main contributions. First, we perform a sensitivity analysis to investigate how using spatial and temporal thresholds to compute TOH and #ALs affects the agreement between self-reported and GPS-based indicators. Second, we show how daily self-reported and GPS-derived mobility indicators are compared. Third, we explore whether the type and duration of self-reported activity events are related to the degree of correspondence between reported and GPS event. Highest indicator agreement was found for temporal interpolation (Tmax
) of up to 5 h for both indicators, a radius (Dmax
) to delineate home between 100 and 200 m for TOH, and for #ALs a spatial extent (Dmax
) between 125 and 200 m, and temporal extent (Tmin
) between 5 and 6 min to define an activity location. High agreement between self-reported and GPS-based indicators is obtained for TOH and moderate agreement for #ALs. While reported event type and duration impact on whether a reported event has a matching GPS event, indoor and outdoor events are detected at equal proportions. This work will help future studies to choose optimal threshold settings and will provide knowledge about the validity of mobility indicators.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited