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Open AccessArticle

Dynamic Consolidation Measurements in a Well Field Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

1
Wetsus, European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Oostergoweg 9, 8911 MA Leeuwarden, The Netherlands
2
Optical Sciences, University of Twente, Hallenweg 23, 7522 NH Enschede, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Affiliation 1.
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4403; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204403
Received: 16 September 2019 / Revised: 1 October 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Currently available groundwater flow prediction tools and methods are limited by insufficient spatial resolution of subsurface data and the unknown local heterogeneity. In this field study, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors were installed in an extraction well field to investigate its potential to measure groundwater flow velocity. Reference in-situ pore pressure and temperature measurements were used to identify possible sources of FBG responses. FBG strain sensors were able to detect soil consolidation caused by groundwater extraction from 250 m distance. The results show that FBG responses were influenced by interface friction between soil and FBG packaging. FBG packaging slipped in soil and the effect was more pronounced during higher groundwater flow around a nearby well. These FBG fibers could be applied for indirect flow monitoring that does not require any tracer and provide real-time and long-term data during regular operation of extraction wells. View Full-Text
Keywords: fiber Bragg grating; consolidation; groundwater extraction; FBG packaging fiber Bragg grating; consolidation; groundwater extraction; FBG packaging
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Drusová, S.; Wagterveld, R.M.; Wexler, A.D.; Offerhaus, H.L. Dynamic Consolidation Measurements in a Well Field Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors. Sensors 2019, 19, 4403.

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