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Open AccessArticle

Unique 4-DOF Relative Pose Estimation with Six Distances for UWB/V-SLAM-Based Devices

1
Fraunhofer Institute of Optronics, System Technologies and Image Exploitation IOSB, Gutleuthausstraße 1, 76275 Ettlingen, Germany
2
Institute of Astronomical and Physical Geodesy, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstrasse 21, 80333 Munich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4366; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204366
Received: 26 August 2019 / Revised: 1 October 2019 / Accepted: 4 October 2019 / Published: 9 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
In this work we introduce a relative localization method that estimates the coordinate frame transformation between two devices based on distance measurements. We present a linear algorithm that calculates the relative pose in 2D or 3D with four degrees of freedom (4-DOF). This algorithm needs a minimum of five or six distance measurements, respectively, to estimate the relative pose uniquely. We use the linear algorithm in conjunction with outlier detection algorithms and as a good initial estimate for iterative least squares refinement. The proposed method outperforms other related linear methods in terms of distance measurements needed and in terms of accuracy. In comparison with a related linear algorithm in 2D, we can reduce 10% of the translation error. In contrast to the more general 6-DOF linear algorithm, our 4-DOF method reduces the minimum distances needed from ten to six and the rotation error by a factor of four at the standard deviation of our ultra-wideband (UWB) transponders. When using the same amount of measurements the orientation error and translation error are approximately reduced to a factor of ten. We validate our method with simulations and an experimental setup, where we integrate ultra-wideband (UWB) technology into simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM)-based devices. The presented relative pose estimation method is intended for use in augmented reality applications for cooperative localization with head-mounted displays. We foresee practical use cases of this method in cooperative SLAM, where map merging is performed in the most proactive manner.
Keywords: sensor fusion; relative pose estimation; relative localization; ultra-wideband (UWB); augmented reality (AR); C-SLAM sensor fusion; relative pose estimation; relative localization; ultra-wideband (UWB); augmented reality (AR); C-SLAM
MDPI and ACS Style

Molina Martel, F.; Sidorenko, J.; Bodensteiner, C.; Arens, M.; Hugentobler, U. Unique 4-DOF Relative Pose Estimation with Six Distances for UWB/V-SLAM-Based Devices. Sensors 2019, 19, 4366.

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