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Sensors 2019, 19(2), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020434

Motion Plan of Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships by Dynamic Programming for Collision Avoidance and Speed Optimization

1
School of Software and Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
2
China Waterborne Transport Research Institute, Beijing 100088, China
3
Department of Computer Sciences, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 November 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Ocean: Emerging Research Advances, Prospects and Challenges)
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Abstract

Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS) with advanced guidance, navigation, and control capabilities have attracted great attention in recent years. Sailing safely and efficiently are critical requirements for autonomous control of MASS. The MASS utilizes the information collected by the radar, camera, and Autonomous Identification System (AIS) with which it is equipped. This paper investigates the problem of optimal motion planning for MASS, so it can accomplish its sailing task early and safely when it sails together with other conventional ships. We develop velocity obstacle models for both dynamic and static obstacles to represent the potential conflict-free region with other objects. A greedy interval-based motion-planning algorithm is proposed based on the Velocity Obstacle (VO) model, and we show that the greedy approach may fail to avoid collisions in the successive intervals. A way-blocking metric is proposed to evaluate the risk of collision to improve the greedy algorithm. Then, by assuming constant velocities of the surrounding ships, a novel Dynamic Programming (DP) method is proposed to generate the optimal multiple interval motion plan for MASS. These proposed algorithms are verified by extensive simulations, which show that the DP algorithm provides the lowest collision rate overall and better sailing efficiency than the greedy approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: motion plan; speed optimization; unmanned surface vehicle; velocity obstacle; conventional ships; dynamic programming; maritime autonomous surface ships motion plan; speed optimization; unmanned surface vehicle; velocity obstacle; conventional ships; dynamic programming; maritime autonomous surface ships
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Geng, X.; Wang, Y.; Wang, P.; Zhang, B. Motion Plan of Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships by Dynamic Programming for Collision Avoidance and Speed Optimization. Sensors 2019, 19, 434.

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