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Sensors 2019, 19(2), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020265

The Reliability and Validity of the Loadsol® under Various Walking and Running Conditions

1
Kevin P. Granata Biomechanics Lab, Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
2
Nike Sport Research Lab, Nike, INC, Beaverton, OR, 97005, USA
3
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 5 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Wearable and Unobtrusive Monitoring Systems)
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Abstract

The assessment of loading during walking and running has historically been limited to data collection in laboratory settings or with devices that require a computer connection. This study aims to determine if the loadsol®—a single sensor wireless insole—is a valid and reliable method of assessing force. Thirty (17 male and 13 female) recreationally active individuals were recruited for a two visit study where they walked (1.3 m/s) and ran (3.0 and 3.5 m/s) at a 0%, 10% incline, and 10% decline, with the visits approximately one week apart. Ground reaction force data was collected on an instrumented treadmill (1440 Hz) and with the loadsol® (100 Hz). Ten individuals completed the day 1 protocol with a newer 200 Hz loadsol®. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC3,k) were used to assess validity and reliability and Bland–Altman plots were generated to better understand loadsol® validity. Across conditions, the peak force ICCs ranged from 0.78 to 0.97, which increased to 0.84–0.99 with the 200 Hz insoles. Similarly, the loading rate ICCs improved from 0.61 to 0.97 to 0.80–0.96 and impulse improved from 0.61 to 0.97 to 0.90–0.97. The 200 Hz insoles may be needed for loading rate and impulse in running. For both walking and running, the loadsol® has excellent between-day reliability (>0.76). View Full-Text
Keywords: gait mechanics; ground reaction force; reliability; Bland–Altman; in-shoe gait mechanics; ground reaction force; reliability; Bland–Altman; in-shoe
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Renner, K.E.; Williams, D.B.; Queen, R.M. The Reliability and Validity of the Loadsol® under Various Walking and Running Conditions. Sensors 2019, 19, 265.

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