Next Article in Journal
Pedestrian Positioning Using a Double-Stacked Particle Filter in Indoor Wireless Networks
Previous Article in Journal
Use of Thermistor Temperature Sensors for Cyber-Physical System Security
Open AccessArticle

CABE: A Cloud-Based Acoustic Beamforming Emulator for FPGA-Based Sound Source Localization

1
Department of Engineering Technology (INDI), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), 1050 Brussels, Belgium
2
Department of Electronics and Informatics (ETRO), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), 1050 Brussels, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(18), 3906; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19183906
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 20 August 2019 / Accepted: 6 September 2019 / Published: 10 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Microphone arrays are gaining in popularity thanks to the availability of low-cost microphones. Applications including sonar, binaural hearing aid devices, acoustic indoor localization techniques and speech recognition are proposed by several research groups and companies. In most of the available implementations, the microphones utilized are assumed to offer an ideal response in a given frequency domain. Several toolboxes and software can be used to obtain a theoretical response of a microphone array with a given beamforming algorithm. However, a tool facilitating the design of a microphone array taking into account the non-ideal characteristics could not be found. Moreover, generating packages facilitating the implementation on Field Programmable Gate Arrays has, to our knowledge, not been carried out yet. Visualizing the responses in 2D and 3D also poses an engineering challenge. To alleviate these shortcomings, a scalable Cloud-based Acoustic Beamforming Emulator (CABE) is proposed. The non-ideal characteristics of microphones are considered during the computations and results are validated with acoustic data captured from microphones. It is also possible to generate hardware description language packages containing delay tables facilitating the implementation of Delay-and-Sum beamformers in embedded hardware. Truncation error analysis can also be carried out for fixed-point signal processing. The effects of disabling a given group of microphones within the microphone array can also be calculated. Results and packages can be visualized with a dedicated client application. Users can create and configure several parameters of an emulation, including sound source placement, the shape of the microphone array and the required signal processing flow. Depending on the user configuration, 2D and 3D graphs showing the beamforming results, waterfall diagrams and performance metrics can be generated by the client application. The emulations are also validated with captured data from existing microphone arrays. View Full-Text
Keywords: cloud-based acoustic beamforming emulator; CABE; microphone array beamforming; FPGA microphone array beamforming emulator; delay-and-sum cloud-based emulator cloud-based acoustic beamforming emulator; CABE; microphone array beamforming; FPGA microphone array beamforming emulator; delay-and-sum cloud-based emulator
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Segers, L.; Vandendriessche, J.; Vandervelden, T.; Lapauw, B.J.; da Silva, B.; Braeken, A.; Touhafi, A. CABE: A Cloud-Based Acoustic Beamforming Emulator for FPGA-Based Sound Source Localization. Sensors 2019, 19, 3906.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Link: https://projects.rapptor.vub.ac.be/CABE
    Description: Via this link we provide access to the tool presented in the publication where emulations can be initiated. Please note that this tool is still evolving and changes in layout, presentation and functionality are possible.
Back to TopTop