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Open AccessArticle

Energy-Efficient Multi-Disjoint Path Opportunistic Node Connection Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks for Smart Grids

1
School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
2
Satellite Control Facility (SCF-L) directorate, SE wing, Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
3
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Lahore Campus, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(17), 3789; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19173789
Received: 25 July 2019 / Revised: 26 August 2019 / Accepted: 30 August 2019 / Published: 1 September 2019
The gradual increase in the maturity of sensor electronics has resulted in the increasing demand for wireless sensor networks for many industrial applications. One of the industrial platforms for efficient usage and deployment of sensor networks is smart grids. The critical network traffic in smart grids includes both delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant data for real-time and non-real-time usage. To facilitate these traffic requirements, the asynchronous working–sleeping cycle of sensor nodes can be used as an opportunity to create a node connection. Efficient use of wireless sensor network in smart grids depends on various parameters like working–sleeping cycle, energy consumption, network lifetime, routing protocol, and delay constraints. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient multi-disjoint path opportunistic node connection routing protocol (abbreviated as EMOR) for sensor nodes deployed in neighborhood area network. EMOR utilizes residual energy, availability of sensor node’s buffer size, working–sleeping cycle of the sensor node and link quality factor to calculate optimum path connectivity after opportunistic connection random graph and spanning tree formation. The multi-disjoint path selection in EMOR based on service differentiation of real-time and non-real-time traffic leads to an improvement in packet delivery rate, network lifetime, end-end delay and total energy consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy-efficient wireless sensor networks; multipath opportunistic node connection; smart grids; neighborhood area network; asynchronous working–sleeping cycle strategy; energy-efficient routing protocol; opportunistic connection random graph; service differentiation in smart grids energy-efficient wireless sensor networks; multipath opportunistic node connection; smart grids; neighborhood area network; asynchronous working–sleeping cycle strategy; energy-efficient routing protocol; opportunistic connection random graph; service differentiation in smart grids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Anees, J.; Zhang, H.-C.; Baig, S.; Lougou, B.G. Energy-Efficient Multi-Disjoint Path Opportunistic Node Connection Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks for Smart Grids. Sensors 2019, 19, 3789.

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