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Open AccessArticle

Smoke Obscuration Measurements in Reduced-Scale Fire Modelling Based on Froude Number Similarity

1
Fire Research Department, Building Research Institute (ITB), Filtrowa 1 St., 00-611 Warsaw, Poland
2
Faculty of Mining and Geoengineering, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
3
Faculty of Fire Safety Engineering, The Main School of Fire Service (SGSP), Słowackiego 52/54 St. Warsaw, 01-629 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(16), 3628; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19163628
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 19 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Sensors)
A common method for investigating various fire- and smoke-related phenoma is a reduced-scale fire modelling that uses the conservation concept of Froude number as its primary similarity criterion. Smoke obscuration measurements were not commonly used in this approach. In this paper, we propose a new type of optical densitometer that allows for smoke obscuration density measurements on a reduced-scale. This device uses a set of mirrors to increase the optical path length, so that the device may follow the geometrical scale of the model, but that still measures smoke obscuration as if it were in full scale. The principle of operation is based on the Bougher-Lambert-Beer law, with modifications related to the Froude number-based scaling principles, to streamline the measurements. The proposed low-budget (< $1000) device was built, calibrated with a set of the reference optical filters, and used in a series of full- (1:1) and reduced-scale (1:4) experiments with n-Heptane fires in a small compartment. The main limitation of this study is the assumption that there is similar soot production in full- and reduced-scale fires, which may not be true for many Froude-number scaling applications. Therefore, it must be investigated in a case-by-case basis. In our case, the results are promising. The measured obscuration in the reduced-scale had a 10% error versus averaged measurements in full-scale measurements. Moreover, there were well represented transient changes of the smoke layer optical density during the combustion and after the smoke layer settled. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoke; fire; smoke obscuration; visibility in smoke; Froude number; scale modelling smoke; fire; smoke obscuration; visibility in smoke; Froude number; scale modelling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Węgrzyński, W.; Antosiewicz, P.; Burdzy, T.; Zimny, M.; Krasuski, A. Smoke Obscuration Measurements in Reduced-Scale Fire Modelling Based on Froude Number Similarity. Sensors 2019, 19, 3628.

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