Next Article in Journal
A Contention-Based Hop-By-Hop Bidirectional Congestion Control Algorithm for Ad-Hoc Networks
Previous Article in Journal
3D Simulations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage Detection Using Broadband Microwave Technology
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging Technique for On-Line Inspection of Fecal Residues on Poultry Carcasses

Rural Development Administration, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 310 Nonsaengmyeong-ro, Wansan-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 54875, Korea
Department of Biosystems Engineering, College of Agriculture, Life & Environment Science, Chungbuk National University, 1 Chungdae-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea
Department of Biosystems Engineering, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Powder Mill Rd. Bldg. 303, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, College of Agricultural and Life Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(16), 3483;
Received: 13 June 2019 / Revised: 19 July 2019 / Accepted: 30 July 2019 / Published: 9 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Sensors)
PDF [6890 KB, uploaded 9 August 2019]


Rapid and reliable inspection of food is essential to ensure food safety, particularly in mass production and processing environments. Many studies have focused on spectral imaging for poultry inspection; however, no research has explored the use of multispectral fluorescence imaging (MFI) for on-line poultry inspection. In this study, the feasibility of MFI for on-line detection of fecal matter from the ceca, colon, duodenum, and small intestine of poultry carcasses was investigated for the first time. A multispectral line-scan fluorescence imaging system was integrated with a commercial poultry conveying system, and the images of chicken carcasses with fecal contaminants were scanned at processing line speeds of one, three, and five birds per second. To develop an optimal detection and classification algorithm to distinguish upper and lower feces-contaminated parts from skin, the principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were first performed using the spectral data of the selected regions, and then applied in spatial domain to visualize the feces-contaminated area based on binary images. Our results demonstrated that for the spectral data analysis, both the PCA and PLS-DA can distinguish the high and low feces-contaminated area from normal skin; however, the PCA analysis based on selected band ratio images (F630 nm/F600 nm) exhibited better visualization and discrimination of feces-contaminated area, compared with the PLS-DA-based developed chemical images. A color image analysis using histogram equalization, sharpening, median filter, and threshold value (1) demonstrated 78% accuracy. Thus, the MFI system can be developed utilizing the two band ratios for on-line implementation for the effective detection of fecal contamination on chicken carcasses. View Full-Text
Keywords: food safety; poultry inspection; online measurement; multispectral fluorescence imaging food safety; poultry inspection; online measurement; multispectral fluorescence imaging

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Seo, Y.; Lee, H.; Mo, C.; Kim, M.S.; Baek, I.; Lee, J.; Cho, B.-K. Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging Technique for On-Line Inspection of Fecal Residues on Poultry Carcasses. Sensors 2019, 19, 3483.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top