Introducing Low-Cost Sensors into the Classroom Settings: Improving the Assessment in Agile Practices with Multimodal Learning Analytics
2. Related Work
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Definition of Goals
- To define a method that allows the conducting of Scrum retrospectives facilitating the interaction between the members of a team.
- To record and analyze the individual and group behavior of the work carried out by agile teams.
- Evaluate the effectiveness of MMLA as a technique to measure and evaluate skills in agile teams.
3.2. Case Description
3.2.1. Training and Learning Activities
3.2.2. Case Study
- Do you think that this type of activity helps to understand the benefits of teamwork?
- Do you think that working with Lego® bricks facilitated collaborative work?
- Do you think working with Lego® bricks facilitated communication among team members?
- Were all team members were actively involved?
- Were you according to how to plan and distribute work?
- Has planning poker helped the team reach consensus?
- Did you actively participate in the planning?
- Was there clarity in what each one should do?
- Have all team members worked?
- Did you finish each task assigned to you?
- Were problems correctly detected?
- Was it possible to adjust the work to achieve the objective?
- What I liked most was:
- What I liked the least was:
- As a team, what we would do differently would be:
- At the end of the activity I feel:
- According to work done, I can say that the leadership style that predominates in the team was:
- What do you think was the team’s greatest strength?
- What do you think was the team’s biggest weakness?
3.2.3. Materials and Instruments
- Kit Lego® Classic Creative 10,696 (484 pieces)
- Lego® flat base 10,701 (38 × 38 cm)
- ReSpeaker Microphone
- Tablet Samsung Galaxy Tab A6 10’
- Set Planning Poker
- User Stories (for details see Table 3)Guidelines and guides for the work:Prioritized backlog, Planned vs. done, guides for retrospectives, Fun vs. utility.Markers
3.2.4. Research Questions
- RQ1: How does collaboration and communication relate to the productivity of agile teams?
- RQ2: How does collaboration and communication relate to the estimation of complexity of each sprint?
- RQ3: What is the relationship between the leadership and personality characteristics of agile team members, and the collaboration in during the activity?
- The ReSpeaker record file of the interventions made by each participant in each Scrum retrospective. We will collect speaking time and number of intervention metrics, to measure communication, and we will analyze the collaboration type by processing these measures (see Section 3.4).
- The worksheets were delivered, completed by each team as they progressed in the Scrum simulation; we will obtain the planned and accomplished story points and user stories, which will allow us to measure the quality of the development process in terms of the burning down of stories and the debt of user stories and story points in each sprint.
- The DiSC® behavior test  that each participant answered anonymously at the beginning of the activity. Only the team number was tagged to triangulate the information. We will characterize each team by the most repeated personality type.
- The leadership test , completed by each participant, about the leadership style of the team during the activity. We will characterize each team by the most repeated leadership type.
3.2.5. Ethical Considerations
3.3. Definition of Metrics
- Productivity—Story Points Delivered (SP-D): In the planning game, each team defines the story points for each user story, as a complexity estimation. Subjects must report, in each sprint, the Delivered Story Points (SP-D). Productivity is measured as the number of accomplished story points; to compare it across teams, we will transform the number of story points to the percentage of story points produced in the sprint with respect to the total story points produced.
- Complexity Estimation—Story Points Debt (SPDebt): Subjects must report in each sprint, the Planed Story Points (SP-P). We will measure the quality of estimation improvements in terms of the debt of Story Points (SPDebt); this is the difference between the planned and the delivered story points.
- Communication—Speaking Time and Number of Interventions: from ReSpeakers recordings of the three retrospective ceremonies (performed after each development sprint), we obtain the total Speaking Time (ST) for a sprint, by adding all the speaking times of all the team members. Also, we obtain the number of interventions of each team member, and add all the interventions to get the total Number of Interventions (NI) of the sprint. Although this metric is obviously simplistic to assess effective communication, it will be analyzed in the context of the Retrospective Ceremony structure, purpose, and results, i.e., we are not looking for results such as “Group 1 communicated better than Group 2 because Group 1 has more ST or NI”, but to explore if a greater ST or NI could relate to Process Productivity or Process Quality.
- Collaboration—Collaboration Type by Permanence (CTPer) and Prompting (CTProm): To characterize the collaboration between team members, we use the ReSpeaker data to perform Social Network Analysis and calculate Prompting and Permanence metrics, which yields to a collaboration type for each team. Prompting (calculated from the number of interactions of each team member) and prompting (calculated from the speaking time), were already used to measure collaboration in [5,28]. We labeled each sprint retrospective as Collaborative or Non-Collaborative. Also, we labeled the teams as collaborative if they are collaborative in two or more retrospectives, and non-collaborative in other cases.
- Predominant Personality Type (PPT): Using the DiSC® survey results of each member, a group will be characterized by the most repeated personality type among its members. If there is not a predominant type, it will be labeled as ”undefined”
- Predominant Leadership Style (PLS): Using the leadership survey results of each member, a group will be characterized by the most repeated leadership style among its members. If there is not a predominant type, it will be labeled as ”undefined”
3.4. Collaboration Data Analysis
- The permanence of i: , i.e., the speaking time of participant i regarding the total duration of the conversation.
- The prompting of i: , where , i.e., the number of times the author received comments from another interlocutor, regarding the total number of interventions during the entire conversation.
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Qualitative Results
4.2. Quantitative Results
4.3. Analysis of the Research Questions
- RQ1: How does collaboration and communication relate to the productivity of agile teams? We theorize that a greater communication in retrospectives would yield to more productive sprints, this is, a greater improvement in productivity. In Figure 9 we represent the cumulative percentage of Speaking Time (ST) in each sprint, compared to the cumulative percentage of the total story points delivered in the sprint.
- RQ2: How does collaboration and communication relate to the estimation of complexity of each sprint?
- RQ3: What is the relationship between leadership and personality characteristics of agile team members, and the collaboration during the activity?
Conflicts of Interest
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|D—“Dominance”||Its priority is to obtain immediate results, act quickly and|
question others and likewise about its effectiveness. It is motivated by
power, having authority, control, and success. They have a lot of confidence
in themselves, they speak with frankness and forcefulness; however, they do
not care about others, they are impatient and insensitive.
|I—“Influence”||Its priority is to express enthusiasm, take action, and promote collaboration.|
It is motivated by social recognition, group activities, and friendly relations.
They tend to be enthusiastic, sociable, optimistic, and talkative.
|S—“Steadiness”||Its priority is to support, balance, and enjoy the collaboration.|
They are motivated by stable environments, sincere appreciation, cooperation
and opportunities to help. Usually patient, good team player, humble and good
|C—“Compliance”||Its priority is to ensure accuracy, balance, and challenge assumptions.|
He is motivated by the opportunity to use experience or increase knowledge, in
addition to attending quality. They are usually meticulous, analytical, skeptical
|Step 1: Set Scenario||Proud—Grateful|
|Help the team create an|
environment of positive feelings.
It is a technique that helps break
the ice and generate a space of
trust for the team
|Each member must answer the following questions|
in front of the group: What have you achieved in this
sprint that makes you feel proud? Who from the team
would you appreciate for what was done in this sprint?
What have you learned in this sprint?
|Step 2: Get data, Generate|
ideas, Decide what to do
|Help the team analyze their work|
process by evaluating different
aspects of it.
|Everyone is asked to propose ideas for changes in the|
process based on simple questions such as: what else
should we do? What less ...? Should we keep ...?
|Step 3: Close||Fun vs. Utility||Measure the mood of the team|
after the ceremony.
|Participants are asked to mark their name in the sector|
that represents their feelings about the time invested.
This technique helps us express how each member feels
he spent his time at the meeting.
|Number||Title||As...I want...For||Validation Rules|
|1||Tractor||As a home builder, I want to have a tractor so I can move easily.||The rear wheels must be larger than the front wheels.|
|2||Tractor’s garage||As the tractor owner, I want a garage where you can store the tractor.||It must be wide and roofed|
with front garden.
|As a citizen, I want to have a house with a front garden to enjoy the|
sun in summer
|This house should be near the bus stop.|
The garden must be surrounded by a white fence.
|4||Bridge||As mayor, I want a bridge so that pedestrians and vehicles can cross|
the river that divides the city.
|The river is not large but divides the city in two.|
The river must have container walls.
|5||Kiosk||As mayor, I want a kiosk so that citizens can relax, chat with friends|
or have a coffee.
|It must be located near the bus stop.|
Must have a table and chairs outside for clients.
|6||crane tower||As a home builder, I want to have a tower crane to easily transport|
|The crane must be stable and located near the tractor garage.|
The crane must reach the roof of a 2-story building.
|7||Extendable House Model||As a home builder, I want to have a house design that allows adding|
new parts or floors to the house
|It should be possible to add a room or floors without changing|
the original structure of the house. The floors should follow the
initial design of colors and shapes of the house.
|8||Bus stop||As a citizen, I want a covered bus stop with seats so that in bad|
weather, it is comfortable to wait for the bus.
|The stop must have spaces for advertising posters|
|9||Monument||As Mayor, I want a great monument to make it a point of reference|
in the city
|The monument must be in the center of the city.|
It must be visible from anywhere in the city.
It should be located in a green area with plants.
|10||Public road||As Mayor, I want the city to have a single road that passes close to|
|The road must go through the Bus Stop.|
The road must be no more than 5 centimeters
from each construction.
|11||Public Hospital||As Mayor, I want the city to have a public hospital for urgent and|
|The hospital will be two floors.|
The hospital must have two entrances, one for
emergency care and the other for scheduled care.
|12||Mall||As an investor, I want to build a mall, to cover diverse needs of the|
citizens in a single shopping center.
|The mall must have three levels.|
|13||Pedestrian crossing in height||As mayor, I want between the hospital and the mall a bridge over|
height, so that citizens can move easily to buy what they require
for hospital patients.
|The bridge must take care of the aesthetics of the|
mall and the Hospital.
|Team||Natural Profile||Adapted Profile|
|Story Points for User story||Descriptive Statistics|
|Speaking Time (s)||Percentile||Classification||Type of Group|
|# Interventions||Percentile||Classification||Type of Group|
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Cornide-Reyes, H.; Noël, R.; Riquelme, F.; Gajardo, M.; Cechinel, C.; Mac Lean, R.; Becerra, C.; Villarroel, R.; Munoz, R. Introducing Low-Cost Sensors into the Classroom Settings: Improving the Assessment in Agile Practices with Multimodal Learning Analytics. Sensors 2019, 19, 3291. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19153291
Cornide-Reyes H, Noël R, Riquelme F, Gajardo M, Cechinel C, Mac Lean R, Becerra C, Villarroel R, Munoz R. Introducing Low-Cost Sensors into the Classroom Settings: Improving the Assessment in Agile Practices with Multimodal Learning Analytics. Sensors. 2019; 19(15):3291. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19153291Chicago/Turabian Style
Cornide-Reyes, Hector, René Noël, Fabián Riquelme, Matías Gajardo, Cristian Cechinel, Roberto Mac Lean, Carlos Becerra, Rodolfo Villarroel, and Roberto Munoz. 2019. "Introducing Low-Cost Sensors into the Classroom Settings: Improving the Assessment in Agile Practices with Multimodal Learning Analytics" Sensors 19, no. 15: 3291. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19153291