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Smart Water Meter Using Electrical Resistance Tomography

Engineering Tomography Laboratory (ETL), Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
Ashridge Engineering Ltd, Okehampton EX20 1BQ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is extended from the paper entitled ’Low cost design of Electrical Impedance Tomography hardware system for industrial application’, published in proceedings of the 9th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, Bath, UK, 2–6 September 2018.
Sensors 2019, 19(14), 3043;
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 29 June 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
PDF [63971 KB, uploaded 10 July 2019]


Smart flow monitoring is critical for sewer system management. Obstructions and restrictions to flow in discharge pipes are common and costly. We propose the use of electrical resistance tomography modality for the task of smart wastewater metering. This paper presents the electronics hardware design and bespoke signal processing to create an embedded sensor for measuring flow rates and flow properties, such as constituent materials in sewage or grey water discharge pipes of diameters larger than 250 mm. The dedicated analogue signal conditioning module, zero-cross switching scheme, and real-time operating system enable the system to perform low-cost serial measurements while still providing the capability of real-time capturing. The system performance was evaluated via both stationary and dynamic experiments. A data acquisition speed of 14 frames per second (fps) was achieved with an overall signal to noise ratio of at least 59.54 dB. The smallest sample size reported was 0.04% of the domain size in stationary tests, illustrating good resolution. Movements have been successfully captured in dynamic tests, with a clear definition being achieved of objects in each reconstructed image, as well as a fine overall visualization of movement. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrical resistance tomography; smart water meter; wastewater management electrical resistance tomography; smart water meter; wastewater management

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Wu, C.; Hutton, M.; Soleimani, M. Smart Water Meter Using Electrical Resistance Tomography. Sensors 2019, 19, 3043.

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