Next Article in Journal
Ship Spatiotemporal Key Feature Point Online Extraction Based on AIS Multi-Sensor Data Using an Improved Sliding Window Algorithm
Previous Article in Journal
A Low-Cost Chamber Prototype for Automatic Thermal Analysis of MEMS IMU Sensors in Tilt Measurements Perspective
 
 
Article

Field Deployment of a Portable Optical Spectrometer for Methane Fugitive Emissions Monitoring on Oil and Gas Well Pads

1
IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2707; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122707
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 16 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Sensors)
We present field deployment results of a portable optical absorption spectrometer for localization and quantification of fugitive methane (CH4) emissions. Our near-infrared sensor targets the 2ν3 R(4) CH4 transition at 6057.1 cm−1 (1651 nm) via line-scanned tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), with Allan deviation analysis yielding a normalized 2.0 ppmv∙Hz−1/2 sensitivity (4.5 × 10−6 Hz−1/2 noise-equivalent absorption) over 5 cm open-path length. Controlled CH4 leak experiments are performed at the METEC CSU engineering facility, where concurrent deployment of our TDLAS and a customized volatile organic compound (VOC) sensor demonstrates good linear correlation (R2 = 0.74) over high-flow (>60 SCFH) CH4 releases spanning 4.4 h. In conjunction with simultaneous wind velocity measurements, the leak angle-of-arrival (AOA) is ascertained via correlation of CH4 concentration and wind angle, demonstrating the efficacy of single-sensor line-of-sight (LOS) determination of leak sources. Source magnitude estimation based on a Gaussian plume model is demonstrated, with good correspondence (R2 = 0.74) between calculated and measured release rates. View Full-Text
Keywords: absorption spectroscopy; infrared; diode laser; methane; natural gas; fugitive emissions; source estimation; angle-of-arrival; Gaussian plume model absorption spectroscopy; infrared; diode laser; methane; natural gas; fugitive emissions; source estimation; angle-of-arrival; Gaussian plume model
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, E.J.; Teng, C.C.; van Kessel, T.G.; Klein, L.; Muralidhar, R.; Wysocki, G.; Green, W.M.J. Field Deployment of a Portable Optical Spectrometer for Methane Fugitive Emissions Monitoring on Oil and Gas Well Pads. Sensors 2019, 19, 2707. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122707

AMA Style

Zhang EJ, Teng CC, van Kessel TG, Klein L, Muralidhar R, Wysocki G, Green WMJ. Field Deployment of a Portable Optical Spectrometer for Methane Fugitive Emissions Monitoring on Oil and Gas Well Pads. Sensors. 2019; 19(12):2707. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122707

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Eric J., Chu C. Teng, Theodore G. van Kessel, Levente Klein, Ramachandran Muralidhar, Gerard Wysocki, and William M. J. Green. 2019. "Field Deployment of a Portable Optical Spectrometer for Methane Fugitive Emissions Monitoring on Oil and Gas Well Pads" Sensors 19, no. 12: 2707. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122707

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop