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Sensors 2018, 18(9), 3031;

Extensive Experimentations on Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

CRISTAL Research Laboratory, National School of Computer Science (ENSI), University of Manouba, Manouba University, Manouba 2010, Tunisia
National Engineering School of Sousse (ENISO), Sousse University, Sousse 4023, Tunisia
INRIA Saclay, Infine Team, F91120 Palaiseau, France
University Paris-Est, LIGM-CNRS UMR 8049/LiSSi EA 3956, ESIEE Paris, F93162 Noisy-le-Grand, France
INRIA Paris, Eva Team, F75012 Paris, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QoS in Wireless Sensor Networks)
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In this paper, we design and experiment ODYSSE (Opportunistic Duty cYcle based routing protocol for wirelesS Sensor nEtworks) protocol. It combines three main mechanisms: (i) duty cycle, where nodes alternate between active and sleep states, (ii) opportunistic routing where routing tables do not exist and the next hop is elected once the packet arrives, and (iii) source coding with LDPC (Low-Density Parity-Check) codes in order to face packet losses while minimizing energy consumption. We focus on two heterogeneous scenarios: bulk image transmission and infrequent events reporting. Modeling the average waiting delay of forwarders, we show that simple relay selection strategies are effective. We used 45 Arduino nodes communicating with IEEE 802.15.4 (XBee) within the large platform FIT IoT-LAB (IoT-LAB is part of the large platform FIT: Future Internet of Things). We implement and extensively study the behavior and performance of our proposal ODYSSE. We show that the three techniques fit perfectly, yielding a robust low complexity protocol for highly constrained nodes in typical IoT applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: WSNs; opportunistic routing; low duty-cycle; LDPC; multimedia traffic; experimentation; Arduino WSNs; opportunistic routing; low duty-cycle; LDPC; multimedia traffic; experimentation; Arduino

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Amdouni, I.; Adjih, C.; AitSaadi, N.; Muhlethaler, P. Extensive Experimentations on Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2018, 18, 3031.

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