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Sensors 2018, 18(9), 3031; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093031

Extensive Experimentations on Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

1
CRISTAL Research Laboratory, National School of Computer Science (ENSI), University of Manouba, Manouba University, Manouba 2010, Tunisia
2
National Engineering School of Sousse (ENISO), Sousse University, Sousse 4023, Tunisia
3
INRIA Saclay, Infine Team, F91120 Palaiseau, France
4
University Paris-Est, LIGM-CNRS UMR 8049/LiSSi EA 3956, ESIEE Paris, F93162 Noisy-le-Grand, France
5
INRIA Paris, Eva Team, F75012 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QoS in Wireless Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

In this paper, we design and experiment ODYSSE (Opportunistic Duty cYcle based routing protocol for wirelesS Sensor nEtworks) protocol. It combines three main mechanisms: (i) duty cycle, where nodes alternate between active and sleep states, (ii) opportunistic routing where routing tables do not exist and the next hop is elected once the packet arrives, and (iii) source coding with LDPC (Low-Density Parity-Check) codes in order to face packet losses while minimizing energy consumption. We focus on two heterogeneous scenarios: bulk image transmission and infrequent events reporting. Modeling the average waiting delay of forwarders, we show that simple relay selection strategies are effective. We used 45 Arduino nodes communicating with IEEE 802.15.4 (XBee) within the large platform FIT IoT-LAB (IoT-LAB is part of the large platform FIT: Future Internet of Things). We implement and extensively study the behavior and performance of our proposal ODYSSE. We show that the three techniques fit perfectly, yielding a robust low complexity protocol for highly constrained nodes in typical IoT applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: WSNs; opportunistic routing; low duty-cycle; LDPC; multimedia traffic; experimentation; Arduino WSNs; opportunistic routing; low duty-cycle; LDPC; multimedia traffic; experimentation; Arduino
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Amdouni, I.; Adjih, C.; AitSaadi, N.; Muhlethaler, P. Extensive Experimentations on Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2018, 18, 3031.

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