Modeling and Performance of the IEEE 802.11p Broadcasting for Intra-Platoon Communication
- Firstly, we establish a communication model of intra-platoon communication in a single platoon scenario. The intra-vehicle communication process is divided into two part: back-off process of channel competition for transmitting control messages and queuing process of packets in buffers. The back-off process of broadcasting is modeled using a 1-D Markov chain and the queuing process is established exploiting M/G/1/K queuing theory.
- Secondly, we consider an unsaturated and imperfect condition in our analytical model. The theoretical solution of packet delay and packet dropping rate are derived considering different factors together, including the imperfect wireless channels, various platoon size, distribution of packet generation rate.
- Thirdly, results have been provided in a single platoon scenario under a wide range of settings. The accuracy of the analytical model is evaluated. The impacts of bit error rate, packet generation rate, and platoon size on the intra-vehicle communication performance are investigated. The effect of intra-platoon communication performance on the stability of platoon is discussed.
2. Related Works
3. Platoon System
3.1. Platoon Structure Model
- Leader vehicle: It refers to the first vehicle in a platoon. A leader vehicle is responsible for establishing and administering the platoon with the coordinate of Advanced Traffic Management System, e.g., controlling driving behavior of the vehicle in a platoon, collecting data from other vehicles on the road, and identifying and broadcasting the information of platoon. The movement of the leader vehicle is the reference movement for all remaining vehicles in the platoon to follow.
- Tail vehicle: It locates at the end of a platoon. The tail vehicle is an essential hub for inter-platoon communication and is responsible for establishing a connection with the next platoon.
- Member vehicle: It is a vehicle within the platoon that locates neither at the begin nor the end of a platoon. A member vehicle following a specified control algorithm receives messages from the leader vehicle and its preceding vehicle.
- Relay vehicle: Any member vehicles in a platoon can act as a relay vehicle, which is in charge of assisting leader vehicle in disseminating messages to all vehicles in a platoon.
- Free vehicle: Vehicles that do not belong to any platoon are called free vehicles. A free vehicle sends a request to the leader vehicle of a platoon when it wants to join a platoon. After obtaining the permission of the leader vehicle, the free vehicle can perform join operation.
3.2. Vehicle Control Model
3.3. Communication Model
4. Analytical Model
4.1. Intra-Platoon Back-Off Process
4.2. MAC Layer Queuing Process Model
4.3. Performance Measures
5. Simulations Verification
5.1. Model Verification
5.2. The Effect of Bit Error Rate
5.3. The Effect of Packet Arrival Rate
5.4. The Stability of Platoon
5.5. Simulations Summary
6. Conclusions and Future Work
Conflicts of Interest
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|4096 bits||20 μs|
|192 bits||64 s|
|112 + 192 bits||Data rate||6 Mbps|
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Yu, C.; Si, S.; Guo, H.; Zhao, H. Modeling and Performance of the IEEE 802.11p Broadcasting for Intra-Platoon Communication. Sensors 2018, 18, 2971. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092971
Yu C, Si S, Guo H, Zhao H. Modeling and Performance of the IEEE 802.11p Broadcasting for Intra-Platoon Communication. Sensors. 2018; 18(9):2971. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092971Chicago/Turabian Style
Yu, Chong, Shuaizong Si, Hongye Guo, and Hai Zhao. 2018. "Modeling and Performance of the IEEE 802.11p Broadcasting for Intra-Platoon Communication" Sensors 18, no. 9: 2971. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092971