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Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2936; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092936

Discrimination between Alternative Herbal Medicines from Different Categories with the Electronic Nose

State Key Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
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Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 12 August 2018 / Accepted: 1 September 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

As alternative herbal medicine gains soar in popularity around the world, it is necessary to apply a fast and convenient means for classifying and evaluating herbal medicines. In this work, an electronic nose system with seven classification algorithms is used to discriminate between 12 categories of herbal medicines. The results show that these herbal medicines can be successfully classified, with support vector machine (SVM) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) outperforming other algorithms in terms of accuracy. When principal component analysis (PCA) is used to lower the number of dimensions, the time cost for classification can be reduced while the data is visualized. Afterwards, conformal predictions based on 1NN (1-Nearest Neighbor) and 3NN (3-Nearest Neighbor) (CP-1NN and CP-3NN) are introduced. CP-1NN and CP-3NN provide additional, yet significant and reliable, information by giving the confidence and credibility associated with each prediction without sacrificing of accuracy. This research provides insight into the construction of a herbal medicine flavor library and gives methods and reference for future works. View Full-Text
Keywords: conformal prediction; electronic nose; herbal medicine; support vector machine; reliability conformal prediction; electronic nose; herbal medicine; support vector machine; reliability
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhan, X.; Guan, X.; Wu, R.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Y.; Li, G. Discrimination between Alternative Herbal Medicines from Different Categories with the Electronic Nose. Sensors 2018, 18, 2936.

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