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Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2912; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092912

Effectiveness of Sensors Contact Metallization (Ti, Au, and Ru) and Biofunctionalization for Escherichia coli Detection

1
Department of Immunology of Infectious Diseases, Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw, Poland
2
Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
3
USI, Unit of Nano-Structural Bio-Interactions, Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 2 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Surfaces in Sensing Systems)
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Abstract

In designing a bacteria biosensor, various issues must be addressed: the specificity of bacteria recognition, the immobilization of biomolecules that act as the bacteria receptor, and the selectivity of sensor surface. The aim of this paper was to examine how the biofunctionalized surface of Ti, Au, and Ru metals reacts in contact with strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli). The focus on metal surfaces results from their future use as electrodes in high frequency biosensors, e.g., resonant circuits or transmission-line sections. First, the surfaces of different metals were chemically functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde or with 3-glycidylooxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) followed by N-(5-amino-1-carboxypentyl) iminodiacetic acid (AB-NTA) and NiCl2. Secondly, the lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), polyclonal anti-Escherichia coli antibody and bacteriophage protein gp37 were tested as bacteria receptors. The selectivity and specificity have been confirmed by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and visualized by scanning electron microscopy at low landing energies. We noticed that LBP, polyclonal antibody, and gp37 were successfully immobilized on all studied metals and recognized the E. coli bacteria selectively. However, for the antibody, the highest reactivity was observed when Ti surface was modified, whereas the bacteria binding was comparable between LBP and gp37 on the functionalized Ru surfaces, independent from modification. Thus, all surfaces were biocompatible within the scope of biosensor functionality, with titanium functionalization showing the best performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: label-free biosensor; E. coli detection; microwave-based biosensor; ruthenium; titanium; gold; metallization label-free biosensor; E. coli detection; microwave-based biosensor; ruthenium; titanium; gold; metallization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Górska, S.; Rydosz, A.; Brzozowska, E.; Drab, M.; Wincza, K.; Gamian, A.; Gruszczyński, S. Effectiveness of Sensors Contact Metallization (Ti, Au, and Ru) and Biofunctionalization for Escherichia coli Detection. Sensors 2018, 18, 2912.

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