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Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2885; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092885

An Energy Conserving and Transmission Radius Adaptive Scheme to Optimize Performance of Energy Harvesting Sensor Networks

1
School of Information Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
2
School of Informatics, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, China
3
The State Key Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
4
College of Computer Science and Technology, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, China
5
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Northeastern State University, Tahlequah, OK 74464, USA
6
Department of Network Engineering, School of Computer, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Communications and Networking for IoT)

Abstract

In energy harvesting wireless sensor networks (EHWSNs), the energy tension of the network can be relieved by obtaining the energy from the surrounding environment, but the cost on hardware cannot be ignored. Therefore, how to minimize the cost of energy harvesting hardware to reduce the network deployment cost, and further optimize the network performance, is still a challenging issue in EHWSNs. In this paper, an energy conserving and transmission radius adaptive (ECTRA) scheme is proposed to reduce the cost and optimize the performance of solar-based EHWSNs. There are two main innovations of the ECTRA scheme. Firstly, an energy conserving approach is proposed to conserve energy and avoid outage for the nodes in hotspots, which are the bottleneck of the whole network. The novelty of this scheme is adaptively rotating the transmission radius. In this way, the nodes with maximum energy consumption are rotated, balancing energy consumption between nodes and reducing the maximum energy consumption in the network. Therefore, the battery storage capacity of nodes and the cost on hardware. Secondly, the ECTRA scheme selects a larger transmission radius for rotation when the node can absorb enough energy from the surroundings. The advantages of using this method are: (a) reducing the energy consumption of nodes in near-sink areas, thereby reducing the maximum energy consumption and allowing the node of the hotspot area to conserve energy, in order to prevent the node from outage. Hence, the network deployment costs can be further reduced; (b) reducing the network delay. When a larger transmission radius is used to transmit data in the network, fewer hops are needed by data packet to the sink. After the theoretical analyses, the results show the following advantages compared with traditional method. Firstly, the ECTRA scheme can effectively reduce deployment costs by 29.58% without effecting the network performance as shown in experiment analysis; Secondly, the ECTRA scheme can effectively reduce network data transmission delay by 44–71%; Thirdly, the ECTRA scheme shows a better balance in energy consumption and the maximum energy consumption is reduced by 27.89%; And lastly, the energy utilization rate is effectively improved by 30.09–55.48%. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy harvesting wireless sensor networks; energy conserving; transmission radius adaptive; delay; cost energy harvesting wireless sensor networks; energy conserving; transmission radius adaptive; delay; cost
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Ju, X.; Liu, W.; Zhang, C.; Liu, A.; Wang, T.; Xiong, N.N.; Cai, Z. An Energy Conserving and Transmission Radius Adaptive Scheme to Optimize Performance of Energy Harvesting Sensor Networks. Sensors 2018, 18, 2885.

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